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A Review on Design of Upper Limb Exoskeletons

Muhammad Ahsan Gull, Shaoping Bai, Thomas Bak
<span title="2020-03-17">2020</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/r45lqjggovc6rpxxfw7fhwzs7e" style="color: black;">Robotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
In addition, a brief overview of the control modalities for upper-limb exoskeletons is also presented in this paper. A discussion on the future directions of research is included.  ...  The exoskeleton technology is evolving quickly but still needs interdisciplinary research to solve technical challenges, e.g., kinematic compatibility and development of effective humanrobot interaction  ...  exoskeleton design modeling based on the human upper-limb anatomy.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics9010016">doi:10.3390/robotics9010016</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5iiax7tq6rgszcnaqsadfssszm">fatcat:5iiax7tq6rgszcnaqsadfssszm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200507130212/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/robotics/robotics-09-00016/article_deploy/robotics-09-00016.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f7/0f/f70fe614c775220e053c3f35770b9ca80a3c15e9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics9010016"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Review on Control Strategies for Lower Limb Rehabilitation Exoskeletons

Wen-Zhou Li, Guang-Zhong Cao, Ai-Bin Zhu
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
As a contribution, this paper offers an overview on the state-of-the-art control strategies for rehabilitation LLEs by classifying them into eight categories, each of which is presented with a technical  ...  However, these devices are yet to reach the final goal of performing human-machine joint movement agilely and smartly. Control strategy plays an important role in achieving their designed goal.  ...  The current EMG-based control can perform direct neural control supported by prior knowledge on continuous kinematic information decoding such as musculoskeletal model.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3110595">doi:10.1109/access.2021.3110595</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/65yjueltjnf6zfgyl5ovls56da">fatcat:65yjueltjnf6zfgyl5ovls56da</a> </span>
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Relationship Between Muscular Activity and Assistance Magnitude for a Myoelectric Model Based Controlled Exosuit

Francesco Missiroli, Nicola Lotti, Michele Xiloyannis, Lizeth H. Sloot, Robert Riener, Lorenzo Masia
<span title="2020-12-17">2020</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/t4zwwbshrrfd3hjbg4s3bysm7q" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Robotics and AI</a> </i> &nbsp;
Thus, contrarily to classical force and proportional myoelectric schemes, the implementation of an opportunely tailored EMG-driven model based controller affords to naturally match user's intention detection  ...  We previously proposed to tackle this challenge by means of a model-based myoelectric controller, treating the exosuit as an external muscular layer in parallel to the human biomechanics and as such, controlled  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the funding programme Open Access Publishing, by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.595844">doi:10.3389/frobt.2020.595844</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33501357">pmid:33501357</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC7805765/">pmcid:PMC7805765</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xv3uxpcyv5ewrhdbkldf74isw4">fatcat:xv3uxpcyv5ewrhdbkldf74isw4</a> </span>
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A Linear Approach to Optimize an EMG-Driven Neuromusculoskeletal Model for Movement Intention Detection in Myo-Control: A Case Study on Shoulder and Elbow Joints

Domenico Buongiorno, Michele Barsotti, Francesco Barone, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Antonio Frisoli
<span title="2018-11-13">2018</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/el4ui6zhlfcjjbeubbsd7m4x6i" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Neurorobotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this field, model based myo-control schemes (e.g., EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal models, NMS) represent a valid solution for estimating the moments of the human joints.  ...  Overall, the two optimized NMS models were able to predict the shoulder and elbow moments with a low error, thus demonstrating the potentiality for being used in an admittance-based myo-control scheme.  ...  In this field, model based myo-control schemes (e.g., EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal models, NMS) represent a valid solution for estimating the moments of the human joints.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2018.00074">doi:10.3389/fnbot.2018.00074</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30483090">pmid:30483090</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC6243090/">pmcid:PMC6243090</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/btqei5n3sfaxlivtacf6ie32du">fatcat:btqei5n3sfaxlivtacf6ie32du</a> </span>
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Upper-Limb Robotic Exoskeletons for Neurorehabilitation: A Review on Control Strategies

Tommaso Proietti, Vincent Crocher, Agnes Roby-Brami, Nathanael Jarrasse
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/pjmncnm4zfdltlh5rxo2xd62xa" style="color: black;">IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering</a> </i> &nbsp;
The control parameters can be chosen based on kinematics and dynamics of the human arm. Besides, a simplified model-based gravity compensation was used.  ...  Model-based assistance: In [50] , after an offline posture measurement through motion capture, authors derived a muscle force estimation to maintain a desired pose, by using a musculoskeletal human model  ...  Her first research interest was in the field of clinical neurophysiology after which she focused on upper limb motor control, disability, and recovery in cerebral and spinal injured patients.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/rbme.2016.2552201">doi:10.1109/rbme.2016.2552201</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27071194">pmid:27071194</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jgtu6v7vljhrneobcypffyadzu">fatcat:jgtu6v7vljhrneobcypffyadzu</a> </span>
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Review on Design and Control Aspects of Robotic Shoulder Rehabilitation Orthoses

Aibek S. Niyetkaliyev, Shahid Hussain, Mergen H. Ghayesh, Gursel Alici
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/b32fg3eaw5htxo27fbdgmysupe" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
This is a challenging task to achieve for one of the most biomechanically complex joint of human body, the shoulder.  ...  This is a challenging task to achieve for one of the most biomechanically complex joints of human body, i.e., the shoulder.  ...  the PhD scholarship for the first author funded by the School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/thms.2017.2700634">doi:10.1109/thms.2017.2700634</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/bbkht3p5wfgy3cmwh2pxan45wy">fatcat:bbkht3p5wfgy3cmwh2pxan45wy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190426215631/https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&amp;httpsredir=1&amp;article=2528&amp;context=eispapers1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/07/a6/07a6a96b05a606221be28f822c26248d134539f6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/thms.2017.2700634"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Ankle Joint Torque Estimation Using an EMG-Driven Neuromusculoskeletal Model and an Artificial Neural Network Model

Longbin Zhang, Zhijun Li, Yingbai Hu, Christian Smith, Elena M. Gutierrez Farewik, Ruoli Wang
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/sv6lf6p3jrf4vbz5puthqdqmae" style="color: black;">IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this article, ankle joint torques were estimated using electromyography (EMG)-driven neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) model and an artificial neural network (ANN) model in seven movement tasks, including  ...  We found that the NMS model could overall better predict ankle joint torques from EMG and angle data than the ANN model with some exceptions; the ANN predicted ankle joint torques with better agreement  ...  [5] proposed an adaptive admittance control scheme for an ankle exoskeleton by utilizing an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model and tested on eight able-bodied subjects.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/tase.2020.3033664">doi:10.1109/tase.2020.3033664</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cqcudja34rhwxa3nqvzvwup6fy">fatcat:cqcudja34rhwxa3nqvzvwup6fy</a> </span>
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State of the art in parallel ankle rehabilitation robot: a systematic review

Mingjie Dong, Yu Zhou, Jianfeng Li, Xi Rong, Wenpei Fan, Xiaodong Zhou, Yuan Kong
<span title="2021-03-20">2021</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/w3izv4c5yvaklo4zoqbapptgoe" style="color: black;">Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation</a> </i> &nbsp;
In addition, the design of actuators combining the advantages of the pneumatic-driven and electrically driven ones, as well as some new other actuators, will be a research hotspot for the development of  ...  For the control strategy, compliance control with variable parameters should be further studied, with sEMG signal included to improve the real-time performance.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids for its meaningful guidance on the rehabilitation training methods of AJC, which helped structure  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-021-00845-z">doi:10.1186/s12984-021-00845-z</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33743757">pmid:33743757</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC7981854/">pmcid:PMC7981854</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jdhfog3wx5gbvpesaoid4ex46i">fatcat:jdhfog3wx5gbvpesaoid4ex46i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210331041452/https://jneuroengrehab.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12984-021-00845-z.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6c/de/6cde6f2be3de3788cff36148269ee221df443ca8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-021-00845-z"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981854" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Progress and prospects of the human–robot collaboration

Arash Ajoudani, Andrea Maria Zanchettin, Serena Ivaldi, Alin Albu-Schäffer, Kazuhiro Kosuge, Oussama Khatib
<span title="2017-10-31">2017</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jmjdfeig5rayzgfuauvumileza" style="color: black;">Autonomous Robots</a> </i> &nbsp;
Recent technological advances in hardware design of the robotic platforms enabled the implementation of various control modalities for improved interactions with humans and unstructured environments.  ...  In fact, the main purpose of this paper is to review the state-of-theart on intermediate human-robot interfaces (bi-directional), robot control modalities, system stability, benchmarking and relevant use  ...  This work is supported in part by the EU FP7-ICT projects WALKMAN (no. 611832) and CoDyCo (no. 600716); in part by the H2020 Projects SoftPro (no. 688857) and AnDy (no.731540).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10514-017-9677-2">doi:10.1007/s10514-017-9677-2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tavilvbxq5ei5j6a4pvzchnhlq">fatcat:tavilvbxq5ei5j6a4pvzchnhlq</a> </span>
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Converging Robotic Technologies in Targeted Neural Rehabilitation: A Review of Emerging Solutions and Challenges

Kostas Nizamis, Alkinoos Athanasiou, Sofia Almpani, Christos Dimitrousis, Alexander Astaras
<span title="2021-03-16">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
Upon conclusion, we discuss the future directions for neural rehabilitation research, diagnosis, and treatment based on the discussed technologies and their major roadblocks.  ...  Recent advances in the field of neural rehabilitation, facilitated through technological innovation and improved neurophysiological knowledge of impaired motor control, have opened up new research directions  ...  The robotic device works with five VR task-driven training applications and is synchronized with an HR-EEG system.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062084">doi:10.3390/s21062084</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33809721">pmid:33809721</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8002299/">pmcid:PMC8002299</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jv3tjm3w2nh2xhhlymbk7lmm5i">fatcat:jv3tjm3w2nh2xhhlymbk7lmm5i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210318234952/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-21-02084/article_deploy/sensors-21-02084.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/97/08/970871278c238e988a3ad844d735f723bccd8ea8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062084"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002299" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Artificial Intelligence-Based Wearable Robotic Exoskeletons for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Review

Manuel Andrés Vélez-Guerrero, Mauro Callejas-Cuervo, Stefano Mazzoleni
<span title="2021-03-18">2021</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/taedaf6aozg7vitz5dpgkojane" style="color: black;">Sensors</a> </i> &nbsp;
Processing and control systems based on artificial intelligence (AI) have progressively improved mobile robotic exoskeletons used in upper-limb motor rehabilitation.  ...  on the rehabilitation process and improve the interactions among patients, teams of health professionals, and technology.  ...  Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Software Research Group GIS from the School  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062146">doi:10.3390/s21062146</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33803911">pmid:33803911</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8003246/">pmcid:PMC8003246</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uwpnqwosjbacnpi42a554a7xwe">fatcat:uwpnqwosjbacnpi42a554a7xwe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210320031244/https://res.mdpi.com/d_attachment/sensors/sensors-21-02146/article_deploy/sensors-21-02146.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cf/c2/cfc2ed08ed93e04a264dd2c3978b779c32055bef.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/s21062146"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003246" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Recent Trends in Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Orthosis: Control Scheme and Strategy for Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gait Trainers

Mohd Dzahir, Shin-ichiroh Yamamoto
<span title="2014-04-14">2014</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/r45lqjggovc6rpxxfw7fhwzs7e" style="color: black;">Robotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.  ...  However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system.  ...  Author Contributions Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir reviewed the related journal and conference papers, summarized the literature reviews and prepared the manuscript; Shin-ichiroh Yamamoto re-evaluated the manuscript  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics3020120">doi:10.3390/robotics3020120</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ckfrfyvggvao3c22hmpt3tftgy">fatcat:ckfrfyvggvao3c22hmpt3tftgy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150110235451/http://www.mdpi.com:80/2218-6581/3/2/120/pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/4e/c5/4ec534146b93cab827263af07956a873cae764ee.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/robotics3020120"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

A Survey on Design and Control of Lower Extremity Exoskeletons for Bipedal Walking

Ibrahim Tijjani, Shivesh Kumar, Melya Boukheddimi
<span title="2022-02-25">2022</span> <i title="MDPI AG"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/smrngspzhzce7dy6ofycrfxbim" style="color: black;">Applied Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
Then, these designs are studied from design, modeling, and control viewpoints. Finally, a discussion on future research directions is provided.  ...  This paper presents a survey on the design and control of lower extremity exoskeletons for bipedal walking.  ...  Model-Based Control The model-based control scheme uses algorithms formulated from either the kinematic or dynamic model of the robot system.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052395">doi:10.3390/app12052395</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/skogwlcvijerpeuagfku4dam5q">fatcat:skogwlcvijerpeuagfku4dam5q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220505163250/https://mdpi-res.com/d_attachment/applsci/applsci-12-02395/article_deploy/applsci-12-02395.pdf?version=1645783252" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/5d/03/5d03fb2c80489ad4e253657b6e4e6059b2e89a5e.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052395"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mdpi.com </button> </a>

Exoskeleton Active Walking Assistance Control Framework Based on Frequency Adaptive Dynamics Movement Primitives

Shiyin Qiu, Wei Guo, Fusheng Zha, Jing Deng, Xin Wang
<span title="2021-05-20">2021</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/el4ui6zhlfcjjbeubbsd7m4x6i" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Neurorobotics</a> </i> &nbsp;
The proposed active walking assistance control framework based on FADMPs is a model-based controller which relies on the human joint torque estimation.  ...  The active assistant control framework based on FADMPs aims at improving the performance of active assistance control by compensating the phase delay.  ...  AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS SQ developed the FADMPs algorithm and responsible for data collection and processing. SQ and JD established the exoskeleton prototype and implemented the controller.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2021.672582">doi:10.3389/fnbot.2021.672582</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34093160">pmid:34093160</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8173117/">pmcid:PMC8173117</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/l3vmgdtbx5grvbo4wu25abv4mm">fatcat:l3vmgdtbx5grvbo4wu25abv4mm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210521043601/https://fjfsdata01prod.blob.core.windows.net/articles/files/672582/pubmed-zip/.versions/1/.package-entries/fnbot-15-672582/fnbot-15-672582.pdf?sv=2018-03-28&amp;sr=b&amp;sig=uM0WrruC%2FO%2BnWlDLjWk4PPD%2FePPV%2BjlnztoDbwyQ7Wk%3D&amp;se=2021-05-21T04%3A36%3A31Z&amp;sp=r&amp;rscd=attachment%3B%20filename%2A%3DUTF-8%27%27fnbot-15-672582.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/84/9f/849fcc1457bd5f64f4401ade29a437a4c4562242.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2021.672582"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> frontiersin.org </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173117" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>

Review of control strategies for lower-limb exoskeletons to assist gait

Romain Baud, Ali Reza Manzoori, Auke Ijspeert, Mohamed Bouri
<span title="2021-07-27">2021</span> <i title="Springer Science and Business Media LLC"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/w3izv4c5yvaklo4zoqbapptgoe" style="color: black;">Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation</a> </i> &nbsp;
The desired action is determined based on position/torque profiles, model-based calculations, or other custom functions of the sensory signals.  ...  In the mid-level, the synchronization is most often based on manual triggers by the user, discrete events (followed by state machines or time-based progression), or continuous estimations using state variables  ...  Impose the movement (IMP) Instead of synchronizing to the user, the robot imposes the movement continuously. So, it is the user's responsibility to stay synchronized with the robot.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-021-00906-3">doi:10.1186/s12984-021-00906-3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34315499">pmid:34315499</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8314580/">pmcid:PMC8314580</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/42iuhhmgs5evhdpxgagftfln3u">fatcat:42iuhhmgs5evhdpxgagftfln3u</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210727161501/https://jneuroengrehab.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12984-021-00906-3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b0/91/b09198a9afddc62c51f8d7f26a1ccafab3de7f11.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12984-021-00906-3"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> springer.com </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314580" title="pubmed link"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> pubmed.gov </button> </a>
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