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Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts [article]

Thomas Dickerson, Paul Gazzillo, Maurice Herlihy, Eric Koskinen
2017 arXiv   pre-print
These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain.  ...  Miners execute smart contracts speculatively in parallel, allowing non-conflicting contracts to proceed concurrently, and "discovering" a serializable concurrent schedule for a block's transactions, This  ...  Data Conflict is added by including transactions that transfer ownership to the contract creator.  ... 
arXiv:1702.04467v1 fatcat:huu5ain26fddtmmg5gkrd5sqba

An Efficient Framework for Optimistic Concurrent Execution of Smart Contracts [article]

Parwat Singh Anjana, Sweta Kumari, Sathya Peri, Sachin Rathor, and Archit Somani
2019 arXiv   pre-print
By entitling concurrency to smart contracts execution, we can achieve better efficiency and higher throughput.  ...  Later the validators serially re-execute the smart contract transactions of the block to validate it.  ...  We would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their useful comments. We are also very grateful to Anila Kumari and G Monika the developers of IITH STM.  ... 
arXiv:1809.01326v4 fatcat:qf72icxf7zghlfgiic65sag2ra

OptSmart: A Space Efficient Optimistic Concurrent Execution of Smart Contracts [article]

Parwat Singh Anjana, Sweta Kumari, Sathya Peri, Sachin Rathor, Archit Somani
2021 arXiv   pre-print
By adding concurrency to the execution of AUs, we can achieve better efficiency and higher throughput.  ...  Serial execution of smart contract transactions/atomic-units (AUs) fails to harness the multiprocessing power offered by the prevalence of multi-core processors.  ...  If the contract is a write-intensive, fewer AUs are added in the concurrent bin. While more AUs added in the concurrent bin for read-intensive contracts.  ... 
arXiv:2102.04875v2 fatcat:l2wbkjldsnhklgikfgefwehotq

Transactional Smart Contracts in Blockchain Systems [article]

Victor Zakhary, Divyakant Agrawal, Amr El Abbadi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
These primitives allow developers to write smart contracts without the need to reason about the anomalies that can arise due to concurrent smart contract function executions.  ...  This paper presents TXSC, a framework that provides smart contract developers with transaction primitives.  ...  Unlike previous works [13, 15, 19] that propose smart contract analysis tools to detect concurrency bugs in smart contracts, TXSC aims to free smart contract developers from the burden of implementing  ... 
arXiv:1909.06494v1 fatcat:kblp5ho5enfkrc2nife4bse5za

OV: Validity-based Optimistic Smart Contracts [article]

Quan Nguyen, Andre Cronje, Michael Kong
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In order to leverage the advances of multicores, this paper explores the next generation of smart contract platforms that enables concurrent execution of such contracts.  ...  Reasoning about the validity of the object states is challenging in concurrent smart contracts. We examine a programming model to support optimistic execution of SCTs.  ...  Our Approach Adding concurrency to the execution of SCTs can potentially help achieve better efficiency and higher throughput [2, 8, 41] .  ... 
arXiv:2004.04338v1 fatcat:jxybp2lijnagjpgnu75bjdblbm

THEMIS: Decentralized and Trustless Ad Platform with Reporting Integrity [article]

Gonçalo Pestana, Iñigo Querejeta-Azurmendi, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Benjamin Livshits
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of our approach, we implemented a prototype of THEMIS using a combination of smart contracts and zero-knowledge schemes.  ...  THEMIS (i) provides auditability to all participants, (ii) rewards users for viewing ads, and (iii) allows advertisers to verify the performance and billing reports of their ad campaigns.  ...  Results presented for number of concurrent clients requesting the reward computation from the smart contract. C.  ... 
arXiv:2007.05556v2 fatcat:x3a6qalkobdhhf2rbyjewarehe

THEMIS: A Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Ad Platform with Reporting Integrity [article]

Gonçalo Pestana, Iñigo Querejeta-Azurmendi, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Benjamin Livshits
2021 arXiv   pre-print
By leveraging smart contracts and zero-knowledge schemes, we implement a prototype of THEMIS and early performance evaluation results show that it can scale linearly on a multi sidechain setup while it  ...  THEMIS (i) provides auditability to its participants, (ii) rewards users for viewing ads, and (iii) allows advertisers to verify the performance and billing reports of their ad campaigns.  ...  Results presented for number of concurrent clients requesting the reward computation from the smart contract.  ... 
arXiv:2106.01940v1 fatcat:oeb3kg3szrem7a6sl7x6isy6ou

Security, Performance, and Applications of Smart Contracts: A Systematic Survey

Sara Rouhani, Ralph Deters
2019 IEEE Access  
Although in recent years the progress toward improving blockchain technology with the focus on the smart contract has been impressive, there is a lack of reviewing the smart contract topic.  ...  INDEX TERMS Smart contract, blockchain, review, security, performance, application.  ...  Also, we have introduced different approaches to optimize the performance of smart contract execution and run the smart contract transactions concurrently.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2911031 fatcat:jnuwxfed2jexxdnvlunutnzfku

An Empirical Study of Speculative Concurrency in Ethereum Smart Contracts

Vikram Saraph, Maurice Herlihy, Maria Potop-Butucaru, Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni, Vincent Danos, Maurice Herlihy, Julien Prat
2020 International Conference on Blockchain Economics, Security and Protocols  
We use historical data to estimate the potential benefit of speculative techniques for executing Ethereum smart contracts in parallel.  ...  We also observe that a small set of contracts are responsible for many data conflicts resulting from speculative concurrent execution.  ...  Here, we focus on Ethereum-style smart contracts. Ethereum's smart contracts present a concurrency challenge.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.tokenomics.2019.4 dblp:conf/tokenomics/SaraphH19 fatcat:ijqcne4zqraj3gihncftx446ce

An Empirical Study of Speculative Concurrency in Ethereum Smart Contracts [article]

Vikram Saraph, Maurice Herlihy
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We use historical data to estimate the potential benefit of speculative techniques for executing Ethereum smart contracts in parallel.  ...  We also observe that a small set of contracts are responsible for many data conflicts resulting from speculative concurrent execution.  ...  Contributions How well does speculative concurrency work for smart contract execution? This paper makes the following contributions.  ... 
arXiv:1901.01376v2 fatcat:cwrj6zk53jbapdsgnytrkrktgi

Efficient Concurrent Execution of Smart Contracts in Blockchains using Object-based Transactional Memory [article]

Parwat Singh Anjana, Hagit Attiya, Sweta Kumari, Sathya Peri, and Archit Somani
2020 arXiv   pre-print
This paper proposes an efficient framework to execute Smart Contract Transactions (SCTs) concurrently based on object semantics, using optimistic Single-Version Object-based Software Transactional Memory  ...  To identify malicious miners, we propose Smart Multi-threaded Validator (SMV).  ...  Smart Contracts: Clients (possibly different) send transactions to the miners in the form of complex code known as smart contracts.  ... 
arXiv:1904.00358v5 fatcat:hwrmkh5tr5gi3bnpdvbwpdk4bu

Concurrency Protocol Aiming at High Performance of Execution and Replay for Smart Contracts [article]

Shuaifeng Pang, Xiaodong Qi, Zhao Zhang, Cheqing Jin, Aoying Zhou
2019 arXiv   pre-print
to replay all smart contracts efficiently on multi-core validators where all cores can replay smart contracts independently.  ...  Due to the existence of Byzantine nodes, the mechanism of executing smart contracts is quite different from that in database systems, so that existing successful concurrency control protocols in database  ...  While a pile of works try to improve the performance of blockchain system on consensus layer, there exist some works on adding concurrency to smart contract execution.  ... 
arXiv:1905.07169v1 fatcat:sl6hem7j5zezraqqkx432ehdau

A Concurrent Perspective on Smart Contracts [article]

Ilya Sergey, Aquinas Hobor
2017 arXiv   pre-print
The described contracts-as-concurrent-objects analogy provides deeper understanding of potential threats for smart contracts, indicate better engineering practices, and enable applications of existing  ...  In this paper, we explore remarkable similarities between multi-transactional behaviors of smart contracts in cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and classical problems of shared-memory concurrency.  ...  Accounts using smart contracts in a blockchain. Smart contracts are analogous to concurrent objects.  ... 
arXiv:1702.05511v1 fatcat:75tic2ctirdffno2trwqecyqf4

A Concurrent Perspective on Smart Contracts [chapter]

Ilya Sergey, Aquinas Hobor
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we explore remarkable similarities between multi-transactional behaviors of smart contracts in cryptocurrencies such as Ethereum and classical problems of shared-memory concurrency.  ...  We examine two real-world examples from the Ethereum blockchain and analyzing how they are vulnerable to bugs that are closely reminiscent to those that often occur in traditional concurrent programs.  ...  Accounts using smart contracts in a blockchain. Smart contracts are analogous to concurrent objects.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_30 fatcat:sna3auwrr5fybclluyzvucwlum

Survey on Blockchain based Smart Contracts: Technical Aspects and Future Research

Tharaka Mawanane Hewa, Yining Hu, Madhusanka Liyanage, Salil Kanhare, Mika Ylianttila
2021 IEEE Access  
CONCURRENCY IMPROVEMENTS 1) Lessons Learned Concurrency is essential for the smart contracts to cope with the future demands.  ...  To improve efficiency, several studies have proposed approaches to improve concurrency of smart contracts.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3068178 fatcat:moz4rhuua5erbgen72iltcnjn4
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