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Adaptive channel queue routing on k-ary n-cubes

Arjun Singh, William J. Dally, Amit K. Gupta, Brian Towles
2004 Proceedings of the sixteenth annual ACM symposium on Parallelism in algorithms and architectures - SPAA '04  
This paper introduces a new adaptive method, Channel Queue Routing (CQR), for load-balanced routing on k-ary n-cube interconnection networks.  ...  CQR estimates global congestion in the network from its channel queues while relying on the implicit network backpressure to transfer congestion information to these queues.  ...  CONCLUSION In this paper we have introduced channel queue routing (CQR), a globally adaptive routing algorithm for Torus, k-ary n-cube topology, networks.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1007912.1007915 dblp:conf/spaa/SinghDGT04 fatcat:jhkjqsxwffdkldpyxbxjseooam

An adaptive and fault tolerant wormhole routing strategy for k-ary n-cubes

D.H. Linder, J.C. Harden
1991 IEEE transactions on computers  
Virtual interconnection networks allowing adaptive, deadlock-free routing arc examined for three k-ary n-cube topologies: unidirectional, torus-connected bidirectional, and mesh-connected bidirectional  ...  The concept af virtual channels is extended to multiple, virtual communication systems that provide adaptability and fault tolerance in addition to being deadlock-free.  ...  Torus-Connected Bidirectional k-ary n-cubes There are two channels between adjacent nodes in a bidirectional k-ary n-cube-one for each direction.  ... 
doi:10.1109/12.67315 fatcat:xpfxamxmbjfptpgtqwr5woppt4

A simple mathematical model of adaptive routing in wormhole k-ary n-cubes

H. Sarbazi-Azad, M. Ould-Khaoua
2002 Proceedings of the 2002 ACM symposium on Applied computing - SAC '02  
This paper proposes a simple yet reasonably accurate analytical model to predict message latency in wormholerouted k-ary n-cubes with fully adaptive routing.  ...  Many fully-adaptive algorithms have been proposed for k-ary ncubes over the past decade.  ...  muting in wormhole-routed k-ary n-cubes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/508950.508954 fatcat:vqd6bio3d5gp5ldjv3633xoyia

A simple mathematical model of adaptive routing in wormhole k-ary n-cubes

H. Sarbazi-Azad, M. Ould-Khaoua
2002 Proceedings of the 2002 ACM symposium on Applied computing - SAC '02  
This paper proposes a simple yet reasonably accurate analytical model to predict message latency in wormholerouted k-ary n-cubes with fully adaptive routing.  ...  Many fully-adaptive algorithms have been proposed for k-ary ncubes over the past decade.  ...  muting in wormhole-routed k-ary n-cubes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/508791.508954 dblp:conf/sac/Sarbazi-AzadO02 fatcat:btjwnx5xvrgtbotofttvwx5svi

Application driven evaluation of network on chip architectures forcation parallel signal processing

C. Neeb, M. J. Thul, N. Wehn
2005 Advances in Radio Science  
We focus on the strictly orthogonal n-dimensional mesh, torus and k-ary-n cube networks comparing deterministic dimension-order and partially adaptive negative-first and planar-adaptive routing algorithms  ...  For each network topology and routing algorithm, input-and output-queued packet switching schemes are compared on the architectural level.  ...  The k-ary n-cube represents a special case of the torus, where each dimension accommodates the same number of nodes making up to k n nodes altogether.  ... 
doi:10.5194/ars-2-181-2004 fatcat:tq5ustmoundzzaq666fu74njha

GOAL

Arjun Singh, William J. Dally, Amit K. Gupta, Brian Towles
2003 Proceedings of the 30th annual international symposium on Computer architecture - ISCA '03  
We introduce a load-balanced adaptive routing algorithm for torus networks, GOAL -Globally Oblivious Adaptive Locally -that provides high throughput on adversarial traffic patterns, matching or exceeding  ...  Channel load (γ c (R, Λ)) -The expected number of packets that cross channel c per cycle for the destination matrix Λ and routing algorithm R.  ...  as a well balanced non-minimal algorithm on k-ary n-cubes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/859618.859641 fatcat:fjso4ypbpjbfdpuwiznezphr3m

A new adaptive hardware tree-based multicast routing in k-ary n-cubes

D.R. Kumar, W.A. Najjar, P.K. Srimani
2001 IEEE transactions on computers  
In this paper, we propose a new hardware tree-based routing algorithm (HTA) for multicast communication under virtual cut-through switching in k-ary n-cubes that outperforms existing software and hardware  ...  path-based multicast routing schemes.  ...  A minimum of three VCs per dimension is required for deadlock-free routing in k-ary n-cubes.  ... 
doi:10.1109/12.936232 fatcat:yfyujh56i5efda3abl7vhfdhbe

Load Unbalance in k-ary n-Cube Networks [chapter]

J. Miguel-Alonso, J. A. Gregorio, V. Puente, F. Vallejo, R. Beivide
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper studies the effect that HOL (Head-of-Line) blocking in the packet injection queue has on the performance of bidirectional k-ary ncubes, for values of k over a certain threshold (around 20).  ...  The HOL blocking causes an unbalanced use of the channels corresponding to the two directions of bidirectional links, which is responsible for a drop in the network throughput and a rise in the network  ...  K-ary n-cubes, are the most common direct interconnection network topologies, encompassing rings, meshes, and tori.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27866-5_119 fatcat:v24suogicjhvzfk5ka2wqwjh5m

K-ary n-cube based off-chip communications architecture for high-speed packet processors

J. Engel, T. Kocak
2005 48th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2005.  
The k-ary n-cube architecture allows multiple packet processing elements on a line card to access multiple memory modules.  ...  A k-ary n-cube interconnect architecture is proposed, as an off-chip communications architecture for line cards, to increase the throughput of the currently used memory system.  ...  Performance results k-ary n-cube interconnect vs. sharedbus Performance of k-ary n-cube is compared against a sharedbus.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mwscas.2005.1594497 fatcat:hdx7hjifvjc7bpwzmirrjshy7u

Globally Adaptive Load-Balanced Routing on Tori

A. Singh, W.J. Dally, B. Towles, A.K. Gupta
2004 IEEE computer architecture letters  
We introduce a new method of adaptive routing on k-ary n-cubes, Globally Adaptive Load-Balance (GAL). GAL makes global routing decisions using global information.  ...  In contrast, most previous adaptive routing algorithms make local routing decisions using local information (typically channel queue depth).  ...  AE Ñ × Ö ÔØ ÓÒ CHAOS The Chaos routing algorithm [1] . MIN AD Minimal Adaptive (or the £-channels algorithm) -route in the minimal quadrant, routing adaptively within it [6] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/l-ca.2004.8 fatcat:wp7rjlroiba4zb6xhk3ad7znqy

A Performance Model of Fault-Tolerant Routing Algorithm in Interconnect Networks [chapter]

F. Safaei, M. Fathy, A. Khonsari, M. Ould-Khaoua
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper presents a new analytical model to capture the effects of failures in wormhole-switched k-ary n-cubes using Software-Based fault-tolerant routing algorithm.  ...  The Software-Based fault-tolerant routing [1] has been proposed as an efficient routing algorithm to preserve both performance and fault-tolerant demands in large-scale parallel computers and current multiprocessor  ...  The k-ary n-cube (also referred as n-dimensional, radix-k torus) is currently used as one of the most popular topologies for direct network.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11758501_99 fatcat:ijgbncygjjh5zppoypeeziuf7m

Performance evaluation of adaptive routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes [chapter]

José Duato, Pedro López
1994 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Moreover, we proposed a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing [15]. In this paper, we design adaptive routing algorithms for k-ary n-cubes.  ...  A more powerful approach [12] only requires the absence of cyclic dependencies on a connected channel subset.  ...  When the header is routed, the router can offer one or more alternative paths, depending on whether the routing algorithm is deterministic or adaptive.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-58429-3_27 fatcat:3xo4425cofavbhynrfplcyye4i

Software-based fault-tolerant routing algorithm in multidimensional networks

F. Safaei, M. Rezazad, A. Khonsari, M. Fathy, M. Ould-Khaoua, N. Alzeidi
2006 Proceedings 20th IEEE International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium  
The Software-Based fault-tolerant routing algorithm is a popular routing to achieve faulttolerance capability in networks. This algorithm is initially proposed only for two dimensional networks [1] .  ...  Since, higher dimensional networks have been widely employed in many contemporary massively parallel systems; this paper proposes an approach to extend this routing scheme to these indispensable higher  ...  A k-ary n-cube is a class of regular graphs, consist of N=k n nodes arranged in an ndimensional cube with k nodes along each dimension.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ipdps.2006.1639644 dblp:conf/ipps/SafaeiRKFOA06 fatcat:47x7p32zqfa2jmjtsg7ouhmaca

Off-chip communication architectures for high throughput network processors

Jacob Engel, Taskin Kocak
2009 Computer Communications  
All of the k-ary n-cube interconnects include multiple, highly efficient techniques to route, switch, and control packet flows in order to minimize congestion spots and packet loss.  ...  We investigate multiple k-ary n-cube based interconnects and propose two variations of 2-ary 3-cube interconnect called the 3D-bus and 3D-mesh.  ...  K-ary n-cube network A k-ary n-cube network is a directed network topology.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comcom.2008.12.043 fatcat:n44wcdfjgjhzji5tzqgx2abo3q

Wormhole routing techniques for directly connected multicomputer systems

Prasant Mohapatra
1998 ACM Computing Surveys  
Depending on the usage of paths between the source and the destination, routing algorithms are classified as deterministic, fully adaptive, and partially adaptive.  ...  The main difference among various adaptive routing schemes is the technique used to avoid deadlocks. We also discuss a few algorithms based on deadlock recovery techniques.  ...  for a k-ary n-cube network.  ... 
doi:10.1145/292469.292472 fatcat:awgtqfbqvjfmvfibgxf3aeqlay
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