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Alcohol Decreases Baseline Brain Glucose Metabolism More in Heavy Drinkers Than Controls But Has No Effect on Stimulation-Induced Metabolic Increases

N. D. Volkow, G.-J. Wang, E. Shokri Kojori, J. S. Fowler, H. Benveniste, D. Tomasi
2015 Journal of Neuroscience  
During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate.  ...  (9 Ϯ 11%, p ϭ 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r ϭ 0.36, p ϭ 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group.  ...  Brain imaging studies have shown that acute alcohol administration decreases glucose utilization by the resting human brain, which was originally interpreted to reflect decreases in brain activity de  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.4877-14.2015 pmid:25698759 pmcid:PMC4331638 fatcat:bgdv4nfningu3kys2jf2i5gy3y

The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

James M. Bjork, Jodi M. Gilman
2014 Neuropharmacology  
In this review, we will summarize recent findings about acute human brain responses to alcohol using neuroimaging techniques, and how they might explain behavioral effects of alcohol intoxication.  ...  These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with  ...  Cited original research performed by the authors was funded by intramural funding of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.07.039 pmid:23978384 pmcid:PMC3971012 fatcat:ibcxzzx6ijgzfbs4dmgoflpmeq

Page 393 of None Vol. 30, Issue 6 [page]

1994 None  
The inhibition of glucose use by ethanol in the brain was moderate but statistically significant.  ...  Ethanol metabolism and production of free acetate in the human liver. J. Clin. Invest. 41: 955-961, 1962. . Marks, V. Alcohol and carbohydrate metabolism. Clin. Endocri- nol.  ... 

Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers

Lihong Jiang, Barbara Irene Gulanski, Henk M. De Feyter, Stuart A. Weinzimer, Brian Pittman, Elizabeth Guidone, Julia Koretski, Susan Harman, Ismene L. Petrakis, John H. Krystal, Graeme F. Mason
2013 Journal of Clinical Investigation  
This study used 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward  ...  When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs.  ...  Mason), and CTSA grant UL1 RR024139 from the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Science, components of the NIH, and NIH Road-  ... 
doi:10.1172/jci65153 pmid:23478412 pmcid:PMC3613911 fatcat:jrhfuaoco5bipnvnjbnagsdk6y

Nutritional Ketosis as a Potential Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorder

Vikrant R. Mahajan, Sophie K. Elvig, Leandro F. Vendruscolo, George F. Koob, Valerie L. Darcey, M. Todd King, Henry R. Kranzler, Nora D. Volkow, Corinde E. Wiers
2021 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
Several findings suggest that during alcohol intoxication there is a shift from glucose to acetate metabolism that is enhanced in individuals with AUD.  ...  Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing brain disorder, characterized by compulsive alcohol seeking and disrupted brain function.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the late Dr. Richard Veech for his lasting contributions to the field of nutritional ketosis.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.781668 pmid:34916977 pmcid:PMC8670944 fatcat:4abl26f64zavljycsgun2ay6aa

Alcohol ADME in Primates Studied with Positron Emission Tomography

Zizhong Li, Youwen Xu, Don Warner, Nora D. Volkow, Martin W. Brechbiel
2012 PLoS ONE  
The highest uptake for 1 and 2 in the brain was in striatum and cerebellum but 2 had higher uptake than 1 in all brain regions most evidently in thalamus and cingulate.  ...  Conclusion and Implications: The study shows that alcohol metabolism in peripheral organs had a large effect on alcohol's brain bioavailability.  ...  Performed the experiments: ZL YX DW. Analyzed the data: ZL NV YX. Wrote the paper: ZL NV YX.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046676 pmid:23049712 pmcid:PMC3462207 fatcat:unwyzpgh4bacxkqu7gaoqysibu

Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers

E Shokri-Kojori, D Tomasi, C E Wiers, G-J Wang, N D Volkow
2016 Molecular Psychiatry  
Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood.  ...  Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups.  ...  with brain-wide increases in acetate metabolism. 17 The acetate content in plasma increases during alcohol intoxication.  ... 
doi:10.1038/mp.2016.25 pmid:27021821 pmcid:PMC5138152 fatcat:tksaju6hbfh6dc2d53c5hf6y3a

Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Dong-Cheol Woo, Goo-Young Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Eunjung Bang, Hyang-Shuk Rhim, Sang-Young Kim, Do-Wan Lee, Chi-Bong Choi, Youl-Hun Seoung, Bo-Young Choe
2013 Journal of Spectroscopy  
The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.  ...  The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol) with whole brain extraction.  ...  The possibility that elevated brain sIns, in zebrafish after acute alcohol exposure, results from a higher blood uptake is unlikely considering the limited increase in blood serum sIns.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/971914 fatcat:ikltojinwjagxkibqx2r5oniwm

Alcohol, Adipose Tissue and Lipid Dysregulation

Jennifer Steiner, Charles Lang
2017 Biomolecules  
Glucose tolerance of adipose tissue is also impaired by chronic alcohol due to decreased glucose transporter-4 availability at the membrane.  ...  Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease.  ...  The full effect of alcohol on insulin-mediated glucose uptake also cannot be ascribed to the alcohol-mediated increase in G s α content at the membrane and cAMP accumulation that decrease glucose transporter  ... 
doi:10.3390/biom7010016 pmid:28212318 pmcid:PMC5372728 fatcat:gro4k5y5r5gnbmm2pvns6ulaue

Association Between Reduced Brain Glucose Metabolism and Cortical Thickness in Alcoholics: Evidence of Neurotoxicity

2019 International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology  
Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with reduced cortical thickness (CT) and lower cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlu), but the correlation between these 2 measures has not been investigated  ...  Acknowledgments This work was accomplished with support from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Y1AA-3009). Tomasi et al. | 557 Statement of Interest None.  ...  Acute alcohol consumption has been shown to transiently reduce the metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlu; a surrogate for neuronal activity) in the human brain (Volkow et al., 1990 (Volkow et al., , 2006  ... 
doi:10.1093/ijnp/pyz036 pmid:31369670 pmcid:PMC6754735 fatcat:xyjieagybnfltb3h2vdbjxpm2m

Alcohol Hangover- its Effects on Human Body: Review

Loveleen Bajaj
2018 Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research  
Drinking seems to increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during intoxication but not during hangover.  ...  The impairing effects on memory retrieval processes are in line with those observed after observed after acute alcohol intoxication and those found in alcoholics.  ...  Due to extreme reactivity, alcohol has the potential to affect virtually every organ or biochemical pathway in the human body.  ... 
doi:10.26717/bjstr.2018.04.0001112 fatcat:sw4gjvd6y5f2bcbqxhgdkkw6zy

Alcohol Consumption in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Path through the Immune System

Vugar Azizov, Mario M. Zaiss
2021 Nutrients  
Additionally, systemic increase in acetate negatively affects humoral immune response, diminishing TFH cell as well as professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) function.  ...  Hence, alcohol consumption has profound effects on the efficacy of vaccinations, but also elicits protection against autoimmune diseases.  ...  In rats, acute alcohol intoxication inhibited LPS-induced TNF in bronchoalveolar lavage, but this inhibition faded with chronic alcohol feeding [78] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/nu13041324 pmid:33923766 fatcat:fnsou45g5vg7nnscaz6mafgvhm

Comprehensive review on lactate metabolism in human health

M. Adeva-Andany, M. López-Ojén, R. Funcasta-Calderón, E. Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C. Donapetry-García, M. Vila-Altesor, J. Rodríguez-Seijas
2014 Mitochondrion (Amsterdam. Print)  
Metabolic pathways involved in lactate metabolism are important to understand the physiological response to exercise and the pathogenesis of prevalent diseases such as diabetes and cancer.  ...  Glucose and alanine produce pyruvate which is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm without oxygen consumption.  ...  Acknowledgment We gratefully acknowledge the valuable help received from Ms. Gema Souto in writing and revising this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.mito.2014.05.007 pmid:24929216 fatcat:s5n2gx3eirhrxnjcic4m7oq5ia

Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

Sergi Ferré, Mary Claire O'Brien
2011 Journal of Caffeine Research  
We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine.  ...  The A 1 receptor-mediated "unwanted" anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine.  ...  Ferré's work is supported with the intramural funds of NIDA IRP. Dr. O'Brien's work is supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant R01AA14007.  ... 
doi:10.1089/jcr.2011.0017 pmid:24761263 pmcid:PMC3621334 fatcat:qxcm33wtizcftj5lpfkjzc7x24

Imaging of the Heart: Potential Application to Alcohol-Induced Heart Disease

Steven R Bergmann
1995 Alcohol health and research world  
For example, one study found that increasing amounts of alcohol reduced the uptake of fatty acids-the primary fuel used by the heart muscle-into the heart.  ...  In addition to its effects on the brain and other organs, chronic heavy alcohol use can lead to cardiovascular diseases including hypertension.  ...  In addition to the longterm effects of heavy alcohol consumption, acute alcohol intoxication can induce disturbances in the heart rhythm, which in turn can decrease the effectiveness of the heart's pumping  ... 
pmid:31798035 pmcid:PMC6875747 fatcat:tsnyqpvtfnaoxeolie5cbz3the
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