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Automatic landmarking of cephalograms using active appearance models

P. Vucinic, Z. Trpovski, I. Scepan
2010 European Journal of Orthodontics  
Acknowledgement The authors are grateful to Professor Tim Cootes, Division of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, University of Manchester, UK, for providing the open C++ source code set of AAM  ...  shape model (ASM) and active appearance model (AAM) approach.  ...  Figure 3 3 Multiresolution active appearance model (AAM) search.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ejo/cjp099 pmid:20203126 fatcat:43pu7dxeebhijpfd2o652cfwam

Feature-Based Lucas–Kanade and Active Appearance Models

Epameinondas Antonakos, Joan Alabort-i-Medina, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Stefanos P. Zafeiriou
2015 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  
Lucas-Kanade and Active Appearance Models are among the most commonly used methods for image alignment and facial fitting, respectively.  ...  The authors would like to thank James Booth and Patrick Snape for constructive cooperation on implementing LK and AAMs.  ...  Alabort-i-Medina was funded by a European DTA studentship from Imperial College London and by the Qualcomm Innovation Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tip.2015.2431445 pmid:25966479 fatcat:xxh4h7kxu5fc7kr2qmlh3zfdra

Normalization of Active Appearance Models for Fish Species Identification

Charles-Henri Quivy, Itsuo Kumazawa
2011 ISRN Signal Processing  
It leads to a Unified Active Appearance Model built from species that present characteristic texture patterns. Experiments are carried out on images of fish of four different families.  ...  This paper proposes a novel method to reduce the computational cost of the standard Active Appearance Model (AAM) for automatic fish species identification by using an original multiclass AAM.  ...  The authors would like to thank Dr. Renaud Seguier for his assistance and his vital encouragements.  ... 
doi:10.5402/2011/103293 fatcat:cqwi3646k5gyzidiuvywvjord4

Fast and exact bi-directional fitting of active appearance models

Jean Kossaifi, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Maja Pantic
2015 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)  
Although such a method might appear to increase computational burden, we show that by capitalizing on results from optimization theory, an exact solution, as computationally efficient as the original forward  ...  Finding landmarks on objects like faces is a challenging computer vision problem, especially in real life conditions (or in-the-wild) and Active Appearance Models have been widely used to solve it.  ...  ACTIVE APPEARANCE MODELS Models. Active Appearance Models are generative models of shape and appearance.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icip.2015.7350977 dblp:conf/icip/KossaifiTP15 fatcat:hksxazax4fbjfk6txutp54xnjm

Fast Algorithms for Fitting Active Appearance Models to Unconstrained Images

Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Maja Pantic
2016 International Journal of Computer Vision  
Fitting algorithms for Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are usually considered to be robust but slow or fast but less able to generalize well to unseen variations.  ...  Next, we describe a part-based AAM employing a translational motion model, which results in superior fitting and convergence properties.  ...  Acknowledgments The work of Georgios Tzimiropoulos was supported in part by the EPSRC project EP/M02153X/1 Facial Deformable Models of Animals.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11263-016-0950-1 pmid:32269419 pmcid:PMC7114981 fatcat:ng7v3bybv5elhowett27cigvxy

Facial Paresis Index Prediction by Exploiting Active Appearance Models for Compact Discriminative Features

Luise Modersohn, Joachim Denzler
2016 Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications  
We combine feature extraction methods based on a generative approach (Active Appearance Models) with a fast non-linear classifier (Random Decision Forests) in order to predict the patients grade of facial  ...  In our proposed framework, we make use of highly discriminative features based on the fitting parameters of the Active Appearance Model, Action Units and Landmark distances.  ...  They proposed an approach based on Active Appearance Models (AAM).  ... 
doi:10.5220/0005787602710278 dblp:conf/visapp/ModersohnD16 fatcat:2nl2dd54affanppybrd6ghouvu

Evolution Strategies for Matching Active Appearance Models to Human Faces

Yui Man Lui, J. Ross Beveridge, Adele E. Howe, L. Darrell Whitley
2007 2007 First IEEE International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems  
Active Appearance Models (AAMs) have been proposed as a useful technique for face registration in part because they can account for changes in shape.  ...  Fitting of AAMs to imagery is typically done using the Gauss-Newton method; however this approach is known to fail when either the initial shape estimate is to far off and/or the appearance model fails  ...  INTRODUCTION Active Appearance Models (AAMs) provide a modelbased registration technique for deformable objects.  ... 
doi:10.1109/btas.2007.4401922 fatcat:negrlxd2x5esxf56j75yyqqgdy

Fast and Exact Newton and Bidirectional Fitting of Active Appearance Models

Jean Kossaifi, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Maja Pantic
2017 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  
Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained  ...  We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact  ...  Part-Based Active Appearance Model Part-based Active Appearance Models on the other hand use a translational motion model W.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tip.2016.2642828 pmid:28026767 fatcat:idqvbz2qkbafrithebmycflicm

A comparative study of active appearance model annotation schemes for the face

Amrutha Sethuram, Karl Ricanek, Eric Patterson
2010 Proceedings of the Seventh Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing - ICVGIP '10  
Active appearance models (AAM), a group of flexible deformable models, have been widely used in various applications such as, object tracking, medical image segmentation and synthesis.  ...  AAMs are statistical models which model the shape and texture of an object. There has been much published work in this field to improve the speed and fitting accuracy.  ...  ACTIVE APPEARANCE MODELS Active appearance model was first proposed by Cootes et. al [24] . AAM decouples and models shape and pixel intensities of an object.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1924559.1924608 dblp:conf/icvgip/SethuramRP10 fatcat:rthft22m2rgf5ijuttb6bvvh4u

Improvements in Active Appearance Model based synthetic age progression for adult aging

Eric Patterson, Amrutha Sethuram, Karl Ricanek, Frederick Bingham
2009 2009 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems  
There has been wide interest in these techniques in recent years, and the use of Active Appearance Models (AAMs) for synthetic age progression has been shown to be a promising approach but has not yet  ...  This paper presents improvements in AAMbased age progression that generate significantly improved visual results, taking into account a much wider gender, age, and ethnic range than published to date for  ...  Fig. 1 . 1 First few modes of the Active Appearance Model (representing variation along the mode axis from left to right, with the mean appearance face in the center) trained on 541 images representative  ... 
doi:10.1109/btas.2009.5339060 fatcat:h3zgoemi4rfhzohu7asokc2n5e

Dense Active Appearance Models Using a Bounded Diameter Minimum Spanning Tree

Robert Anderson, Bjorn Stenger, Roberto Cipolla
2012 Procedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 2012  
We present a method for producing dense Active Appearance Models (AAMs), suitable for video-realistic synthesis.  ...  Once registration between training images has been established we propose a method to add vertices to the AAM in a way that minimises error between the observed flow fields and a flow field interpolated  ...  As a target application we have shown synthesis results of person specific active appearance models.  ... 
doi:10.5244/c.26.131 dblp:conf/bmvc/AndersonSC12 fatcat:b6xi4pr52vdsbovsabpmwtdspe

Bi-temporal 3D active appearance models with applications to unsupervised ejection fraction estimation

Mikkel B. Stegmann, Dorthe Pedersen, J. Michael Fitzpatrick, Joseph M. Reinhardt
2005 Medical Imaging 2005: Image Processing  
One widely-used two-dimensional realisation of such a learning-based model is the class of Active Appearance Models (AAMs), 13, 23 which were recently extended to three dimensions. 42 The work presented  ...  First, the Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are presented using broad terms, without touching the question of dimensionality or the domain problem in itself.  ...  Active Appearance Models (AAMs) 13, 23 represent one method that has gained considerable attention in the literature, seeking to meet the above requirements.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.594930 dblp:conf/miip/StegmannP05 fatcat:bt6wevdg35gm3ew3sre3bhw2ma

An Approach for the Automatic Cephalometric Landmark Detection Using Mathematical Morphology and Active Appearance Models [chapter]

Sylvia Rueda, Mariano Alcañiz
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we propose an automated system based on the use of Active Appearance Models (AAMs).  ...  The AAM was trained using 96 hand-annotated images and tested with a leave-one-out scheme obtaining an average accuracy of 2.48mm.  ...  The appearance of the radiographs contains useful information that should be taken into account. Method Active Appearance Models (AAMs), recently proposed by Cootes et al.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11866565_20 fatcat:7gtyn5la5zeljbwdw6zrvruf7q

Using Bounded Diameter Minimum Spanning Trees to Build Dense Active Appearance Models

Robert Anderson, Björn Stenger, Roberto Cipolla
2013 International Journal of Computer Vision  
We present a method for producing dense Active Appearance Models (AAMs), suitable for videorealistic synthesis.  ...  Further, given the registration of training images, vertices are added to the AAM to minimise the error between the observed flow fields and the flow fields interpolated between the AAM mesh points.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Iain Waugh and Norbert Braunschweiler for allowing us to model their  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11263-013-0661-9 fatcat:o54jozrnb5hpzjedttjz63mgha

3-D active appearance models: segmentation of cardiac MR and ultrasound images

S.C. Mitchell, J.G. Bosch, B.P.F. Lelieveldt, R.J. van der Geest, J.H.C. Reiber, M. Sonka
2002 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  
Index Terms-Active appearance model, active shape model, cardiac segmentation, echocardiographic image analysis, magnetic resonance image analysis.  ...  Comprehensive design of a three-dimensional (3-D) active appearance model (AAM) is reported for the first time as an involved extension of the AAM framework introduced by Cootes et al.  ...  The step leading from existing 2-D active appearance models to a functional 3-D AAM is not an easy one.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tmi.2002.804425 pmid:12564884 fatcat:bt6s3bp23varngj4lv26bk6efe
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