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Michael Backes, Aniket Kate, Esfandiar Mohammadi
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM workshop on Privacy in the electronic society - WPES '12  
It achieves anonymity by routing encrypted traffic across a few routers, where the required encryption keys are established using a key exchange protocol.  ...  Given that the ECC setting is under consideration for the Tor system, the improved computational efficiency, and the proven security properties make our 1W-AKE an ideal candidate for use in the Tor protocol  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson for motivating preliminary discussions, and Berkant Ustaoglu, Robert Ransom, and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier  ... 
doi:10.1145/2381966.2381974 dblp:conf/wpes/BackesKM12 fatcat:6qrtkj7wircutnbzkunvrpoqf4

A Survey on Routing in Anonymous Communication Protocols [article]

Fatemeh Shirazi, Milivoj Simeonovski, Muhammad Rizwan Asghar, Michael Backes, Claudia Diaz
2016 arXiv   pre-print
To this end, we provide a taxonomy for clustering all prevalently considered approaches (including Mixnets, DC-nets, onion routing, and DHT-based protocols) with respect to their unique routing characteristics  ...  between the routing characteristics of these protocols, and their performance and scalability.  ...  Onion Routing-based Protocols Onion routing is used in Tor [8] , which constitutes an extension of the original onion routing design, with some modifications to achieve better security, efficiency and  ... 
arXiv:1608.05538v1 fatcat:arxwswqhl5e7pfhvngni5k3bby

T0RTT: Non-Interactive Immediate Forward-Secret Single-Pass Circuit Construction

Sebastian Lauer, Kai Gellert, Robert Merget, Tobias Handirk, Jörg Schwenk
2020 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
The circuit construction protocol (CCP) negotiates cryptographic keys for Tor circuits, which overlay TCP/IP by routing Tor cells over n onion routers.  ...  Inspired by the latest advancements in zero round-trip time key exchange (0-RTT), we present a new CCP protocol Tor 0-RTT (T0RTT).  ...  We thank our shepherd Wouter Lueks for many fruitful discussions, Tibor Jager for suggesting the use of dummy onions, and Fynn Dallmeier as well as all anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.2478/popets-2020-0030 fatcat:q3rlcpz37ffqxok2v3wxrndjke

Detection of Tor Traffic using Deep Learning

Debmalya Sarkar, P. Vinod, Suleiman Y. Yerima
2020 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA)  
Experiments conducted for classifying Tor traffic types demonstrated an accuracy of 95.6%, which is 6.2% higher than previous work on the same dataset.  ...  Tor, originally known as The Onion Router, is a free software that allows users to communicate anonymously on the Internet.  ...  The exclusive use of time-related features was to expedite efficiency and to ensure an encryption independent traffic classifier.  ... 
doi:10.1109/aiccsa50499.2020.9316533 fatcat:5fvnudnokzhyzejpx6eng4ldfa

Non-invertible Anonymous Communication for the Quantum Era [article]

Luis Adrián Lizama-Pérez
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We introduce a new approach for circuit anonymous communication based on Lizama's non-invertible Key Exchange Protocol (ni-KEP) which has been conceived to work in the quantum era.  ...  Lizama's protocol has the smallest key size when compared to main post-quantum schemes thus it becomes a promising alternative for the quantum era.  ...  Alice decrypts it with k ac and she gets k ad , the secret key between Alice and output node D. In Figure 3 the onion routing protocol on the created circuits is shown.  ... 
arXiv:2103.00598v1 fatcat:pyzir2s3dzappdj3zotwgqjhbi

Post-Quantum Forward-Secure Onion Routing [chapter]

Satrajit Ghosh, Aniket Kate
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The Tor network currently employs a one-way authenticated key exchange (1W-AKE) protocol ntor for this purpose.  ...  In this paper, we demonstrate utility of lattice-based cryptography towards solving this problem for onion routing.  ...  Bose Centre for Cryptology and Security, ISI Kolkata.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28166-7_13 fatcat:67hl35pjhzenxmfs2irtnotku4

Introducing Accountability to Anonymity Networks [article]

Michael Backes, Jeremy Clark, Peter Druschel, Aniket Kate, Milivoj Simeonovski
2013 arXiv   pre-print
We exemplify the utility of BackRef by integrating it into the onion routing (OR) protocol, and examine its deployability by considering several system-level aspects.  ...  Many anonymous communication (AC) networks rely on routing traffic through proxy nodes to obfuscate the originator of the traffic.  ...  key exchange (1W-AKE) [34] such as the ntor protocol.  ... 
arXiv:1311.3151v1 fatcat:k7vvnllfh5d6rioytdddcrw7e4

Authenticated key exchange with group support for wireless sensor networks

Petr Svenda, Vaclav Matyas
2007 2007 IEEE Internatonal Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems  
We present a new idea of group support for authenticated key exchange that substantially increases the resilience of an underlaying probabilistic key pre-distribution scheme against the threat of node  ...  Our work targets the area of authenticated key exchange for wireless sensor networks.  ...  Design of such efficient protocol with a reasonable communication overhead is still an open question.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mobhoc.2007.4428767 dblp:conf/mass/SvendaM07 fatcat:zsdnwk4vavgbznbzmdgtn5ylwq

The fifteen year struggle of decentralizing privacy-enhancing technology [article]

Rolf Jagerman, Wendo Sabée, Laurens Versluis, Martijn de Vos, Johan Pouwelse
2014 arXiv   pre-print
The Tor network is used as a key comparison network in the main part of the report: a tabular overview of the major anonymous networking technologies in use today.  ...  We list reasons for having anonymous networks, discern the problems in achieving decentralization and sum up the biggest initiatives in the field and their current status.  ...  One of them is ACE, an one-way authenticated key exchange protocol.  ... 
arXiv:1404.4818v1 fatcat:7yfg6ske2fhybodp665gtkflny

Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

2012 American Journal of Applied Sciences  
A new approach for an on demand ad-hoc routing algorithm, which was based on swarm intelligence.  ...  The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors.  ...  mechanism, used to exchange keys for symmetric encryption.  ... 
doi:10.3844/ajassp.2012.1283.1289 fatcat:wt6hormfnfajrjs6eioaglzzpa

HORNET: High-speed Onion Routing at the Network Layer [article]

Chen Chen and Daniele Enrico Asoni and David Barrera and George Danezis and Adrian Perrig
2016 arXiv   pre-print
HORNET is designed as a low-latency onion routing system that operates at the network layer thus enabling a wide range of applications.  ...  Our system uses only symmetric cryptography for data forwarding yet requires no per-flow state on intermediate nodes. This design enables HORNET nodes to process anonymous traffic at over 93 Gb/s.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful for insightful discussions with Ian Goldberg, Michael Markus, and the members of the ETH Zürich Network Security group for their discussions and feedback.  ... 
arXiv:1507.05724v3 fatcat:5vlxgo2snbbv7ddsoduuwck454

Achieving privacy in mesh networks

Xiaoxin Wu, Ninghui Li
2006 Proceedings of the fourth ACM workshop on Security of ad hoc and sensor networks - SASN '06  
In this paper we design private routing algorithm that used "Onion", i.e., layered encryption, to hide routing information.  ...  Traditional anonymous routing algorithm cannot be directly applied to Mesh network, because they do not defend global attackers.  ...  After a route has been built, the initiator can exchange data with the Gateway router and becomes an active node. The symmetric keys, instead of public keys, are used for reducing the computing cost.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1180345.1180348 dblp:conf/sasn/WuL06 fatcat:p3flfchmw5fd7n3wggdcmviqyy

Breaking and (Partially) Fixing Provably Secure Onion Routing [article]

Christiane Kuhn, Martin Beck, Thorsten Strufe
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We demonstrate how to avoid it by showing our improved properties for one protocol, thus partially fixing the family of provably secure onion routing protocols.  ...  After several years of research on onion routing, Camenisch and Lysyanskaya, in an attempt at rigorous analysis, defined an ideal functionality in the universal composability model, together with properties  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank our shepherd Ian Goldberg and the anonymous reviewers for their very valuable feedback. This work in part was funded by DFG EXC 2050/1 -ID 390696704.  ... 
arXiv:1910.13772v1 fatcat:jgi2arw5lrea5kjwqn3uhrlppa

A Survey on Contemporary MANET Security: Approaches for Securing the MANET

Rajan Patel, Pariza Kamboj
2017 International Journal of Engineering and Technology  
The article explored various security solutions for routing protocols, data security using cryptography as a first line of defence, key management for securing communication.  ...  This article is intended to provide contemporary MANET security with perspective of routing protocol security and data security with key management, and monitoring the MANET during routing and/or data  ...  They modified XTR (abbreviated for ECSTR which is an Efficient and Compact Subgroup Trace Representation) cryptosystem for reliable exchange of secret keys.  ... 
doi:10.21817/ijet/2017/v9i1/170901413 fatcat:kepeg6nwofcjjce6ubghravk4a

LiLAC: Lightweight Low-Latency Anonymous Chat

John P. Podolanko, Revanth Pobala, Hussain Mucklai, George Danezis, Matthew Wright
2017 2017 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC)  
Those design decisions and trade-offs make LiLAC an interesting case to study for privacy and security engineers.  ...  This leads to a key trade-off between the system's bandwidth overhead and end-to-end delay along the circuit, which we study.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the reviewers for providing great feedback.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pac.2017.14 dblp:conf/pac/PodolankoPMDW17 fatcat:qipqyyai5ndmbjl63bedf43yaq
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