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Universal vs. particular reasoning: a study with neuroimaging techniques

V. M. Abrusci, C. Casadio, M. T. Medaglia, C. Porcaro
2013 Logic Journal of the IGPL  
We show that this distinction has interesting applications to cognition, and particularly to the analysis of human reasoning.  ...  and negative polarity of logical operators (connectives and quantifiers).  ...  After dealing with an Introduction, I shall review some fuzzy logic applications and investigate the ground of their reliability, in order to restrict their role in explanation.  ... 
doi:10.1093/jigpal/jzt008 fatcat:in3heigktvba3p6rt33jnbplgq

Prefiguring Ethical Chances: The Role of Moral Mediators [chapter]

Lorenzo Magnani
2006 Studies in Computational Intelligence  
to build prostheses (epistemic mediators) for human minds, by interacting with external objects and representations in a constructive way.  ...  Moral reasoning could be viewed as a form of "possible worlds" anticipation, a way of getting chances to shape the human world and act in it.  ...  Theoretical abduction 2 certainly illustrates much of what is important in creative abductive reasoning, in humans and in computational programs, but fails to account for many cases of explanations occurring  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-34353-0_13 fatcat:3krnsx6udzbfrihptk6eati44u

Applications of scott's notion of consequence to the study of general binary intensional connectives and entailment

Dov M. Gabbay
1973 Journal of Philosophical Logic  
It initiates the programme, continued in other papers of re-evaluating the notions of logic and proof theory in the light of applications of logic in Infomation Technology.  ...  File: DovPapers/055/055-TFNMR.tex N-Prolog: An Extension of Prolog with Hypothetical Implications 2 Journal of Logic Programming, 2, 251-283, 1986.  ...  Modal and Temporal Logic Programming In Temporal Logics and Their Applications, A. Galton, ed. pp 197-237. Academic Press, 1987 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00129607 fatcat:e6lokulrwrfcvl525fgj6dcr3m

Page 103 of Ethics Vol. 53, Issue 2 [page]

1943 Ethics  
If pure ethics is meaningless with- out some application, application itself requires something to be applied.  ...  The con- clusion will demand a program of moral conduct and therefore belong in practical ethics, but it will reveal that this demand issues from an ethical principle which was implicit in pure ethics  ... 

Obligation as Optimal Goal Satisfaction

Robert Kowalski, Ken Satoh
2017 Journal of Philosophical Logic  
applications, including abductive explanations, defeasible reasoning, combinatorial optimisation, and reactive systems of the production system variety.  ...  Formalising deontic concepts, such as obligation, prohibition and permission, is normally carried out in a modal logic with a possible world semantics, in which some worlds are better than others.  ...  Kowalski also thanks the Japanese Society for the Advancement of Science for its support in the initial phase of this work.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10992-017-9440-3 fatcat:pcsnnijeorgohj6nddxdhf4q5i

A decision support system for bureaucratic policy administration: An abductive logic programming approach

KayLiang Ong, Ronald M. Lee
1996 Decision Support Systems  
In this paper, we present an approach that uses abductive logic programming for building a decision support system for the administration of bureaucratic policies.  ...  The system will help administrators decide the consistency of a policy with respect to the current set of policies and hence, prevent the introduction of inconsistent policies.  ...  Furthermore, we would like to acknowledge those  ... 
doi:10.1016/0167-9236(94)00054-9 fatcat:bbvlza5hvbdg7ihpk3pmygpx24


Luís Moniz Pereira, Pierangelo Dell'Acqua, Alexandre Miguel Pinto, Gonçalo Lopes
2013 The Handbook on Reasoning-Based Intelligent Systems  
This work proposes the application of preferences over abductive logic programs as an appealing declarative formalism to model choice situations.  ...  In particular, both a priori and a posteriori handling of preferences between abductive extensions of a theory are addressed as complementary and essential mechanisms in a broader framework for abductive  ...  and application development in logic programming.  ... 
doi:10.1142/9789814329484_0010 fatcat:ndx54jenmbgqpac3wn2yssfg44

Introduction to the 30th International Conference on Logic Programming Special Issue

2014 Theory and Practice of Logic Programming  
Related Paradigms: Abductive Logic Programming, Inductive Logic Programming, Constraint Logic Programming, Answer-Set Programming; Applications: Databases, Data Integration and Federation, Software Engineering  ...  Papers describing original, previously unpublished research and not simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere were solicited in all areas of logic programming including but not restricted to:  ...  Abductive logic programs and logic program updates thus naturally coexist in problems that are susceptible to hypothetical reasoning about change.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1471068414000581 fatcat:6fczd6mhxjcutozkk6t23lvn5e

A Step towards Medical Ethics Modeling [chapter]

Miguel Miranda, José Machado, António Abelha, Gabriel Pontes, José Neves
2010 IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology  
In this paper we present some of the modeling lines of ethical reasoning applied to medicine, and defend that continuous logic programming presents potential for the development of trustworthy morally  ...  In areas such as medicine where quality of life and the life itself of a patient may be at stake, the ability to make the reasoning process understandable to staff and to change is of a paramount importance  ...  Modeling Clinical Ethics With respect to the computational paradigm, it was considered Logic Programming in the form of a Continuous Logic Programming (CLP), once the truth values are defined in the range  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15515-4_4 fatcat:v63qfjur2nevthgdj32p7ddgla

Editorial: 29th International Conference on Logic Programming special issue

2013 Theory and Practice of Logic Programming  
Beginning in 2010, the proceedings have been published in a dual format: with regular papers contained in a special issue of Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP), and technical communications  ...  The proceedings of the International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP) have had several publishers, including MIT Press and Springer's Lecture Notes in Computer Science.  ...  We believe that these regular papers, technical communications and doctoral consortium papers together provide an excellent representation of logic programming in 2013, along with hints of future directions  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1471068413000112 fatcat:6w2qsd63sne5fhm6o7cxuhli2y

A multi-component framework for the analysis and design of explainable artificial intelligence [article]

S. Atakishiyev, H. Babiker, N. Farruque, R. Goebel1, M-Y. Kima, M.H. Motallebi, J. Rabelo, T. Syed, O. R. Zaïane
2020 arXiv   pre-print
First, the enormous application success of modern machine learning methods, especially deep and reinforcement learning, which have created high expectations for industrial, commercial and social value.  ...  As some surveys of current XAI suggest, there is yet to appear a principled framework that respects the literature of explainability in the history of science, and which provides a basis for the development  ...  Acknowledgements We acknowledge support from the Alberta Machine Intelligence Institute (AMII), from the Computing Science Department of the University of Alberta, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering  ... 
arXiv:2005.01908v1 fatcat:af7fhjzyhveellylg3zqdtobpm

The Logical Way to Be Artificially Intelligent [chapter]

Robert Kowalski
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Abductive logic programming (ALP) can be used to model reactive, proactive and pre-active thinking in intelligent agents.  ...  Pre-active thinking generates logical consequences of candidate actions, to help in deciding between the alternatives.  ...  Acknowledgements Many thanks to the anonymous reviewers and to Ken Satoh for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11750734_1 fatcat:af3mft3nrna7dlchekvl7wmqfa

Multimodal Abduction: External Semiotic Anchors and Hybrid Representations

Lorenzo Magnani
2006 Logic Journal of the IGPL  
Our brains make up a series of signs and are engaged in making or manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity they are at the same time engaged in "being minds" and so  ...  I consider this interplay critical in analyzing the relation between meaningful semiotic internal resources and devices and their dynamical interactions with the externalized semiotic materiality suitably  ...  Theoretical abduction certainly illustrates much of what is important in creative abductive reasoning, in humans and in computational programs, but fails to account for many cases of explanations occurring  ... 
doi:10.1093/jigpal/jzk009 fatcat:yudnipyxuffq7lgz7xatysymdi

Hints and guesses: Legal modes of semio-logical reasoning

Dinda L. Gorlée
2005 Sign Systems Studies  
induction, orienting its habituality (habits) in moral time and space.  ...  Abduction occurs in intuitive conclusions regarding the possibility of backward reasoning, contrary to the system of law.  ...  In The Problems of Moral and Legal Theory (1999) , Posner briefly touches on the judges' moral intuitions with respect to the pain of the enforced punishment.  ... 
doi:10.12697/sss.2005.33.2.01 fatcat:tsa5piqttzhdleyovmiefzc2eq

The Darwinian Algorithm and Scientific Enquiry

Mike Knight
1999 Contemporary Psychology  
Time and again in this handbook, interdisciplinary consilience emerges from the application of the Darwinian algorithm to the ideas, issues, and applications of evolu- tionary psychology.  ...  At the deductive level, this in- volves operationalizing variables and their assumed relationships leading to logical (if- then) consequences that are amenable to ex- perimentation and subsequent inductive  ... 
doi:10.1037/001977 fatcat:k2hpg7dinnfwxl3y6t7kvjtbhy
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