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AI, Explainability and Public Reason: The Argument from the Limitations of the Human Mind

Jocelyn Maclure
2021 Minds and Machines  
In the second part of the paper, I try to show that the argument from the limitations of human cognition fails to get AI off the hook of public reason.  ...  This legal duty can be derived from the demands of Rawlsian public reason.  ...  Acknowledgements An earlier version of this paper was presented to the philosophy department at McGill University. I wish to thank all the participants for the helpful discussion.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11023-021-09570-x fatcat:ijujt3q2q5gkfnfh7ycjzwkvq4

Explanation in Human-AI Systems: A Literature Meta-Review, Synopsis of Key Ideas and Publications, and Bibliography for Explainable AI [article]

Shane T. Mueller, Robert R. Hoffman, William Clancey, Abigail Emrey, Gary Klein
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The Report expresses the explainability issues and challenges in modern AI, and presents capsule views of the leading psychological theories of explanation.  ...  The Report encapsulates the history of computer science efforts to create systems that explain and instruct (intelligent tutoring systems and expert systems).  ...  It is clear that some of the issues that relate to human trust in automation translate to the area of human trust in AI systems and explainable AI systems.  ... 
arXiv:1902.01876v1 fatcat:glklvdwc2rbdzgteew4ttfjz2q

The Punishment Gap: The Infeasible Public Attribution of Punishment to AI and Robots [article]

Gabriel Lima, Meeyoung Cha, Chihyung Jeon, Kyungsin Park
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This paper revisits the debate around the legal personhood of AI and robots, which has been highly sensitive yet important in the face of broad adoption of autonomous and self-learning systems.  ...  We conducted a survey (N=3,315) to understand lay people's perceptions of this topic and analyzed how they would assign responsibility, awareness, and punishment to AI, robots, humans, and various entities  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R029-C2).  ... 
arXiv:2003.06507v2 fatcat:pp6gypn6jneihkh4x7uyjqjpq4

Machine Reasoning Explainability [article]

Kristijonas Cyras, Ramamurthy Badrinath, Swarup Kumar Mohalik, Anusha Mujumdar, Alexandros Nikou, Alessandro Previti, Vaishnavi Sundararajan, Aneta Vulgarakis Feljan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As a field of AI, Machine Reasoning (MR) uses largely symbolic means to formalize and emulate abstract reasoning.  ...  We hereby aim to provide a selective overview of MR explainability techniques and studies in hopes that insights from this long track of research will complement well the current XAI landscape.  ...  [158, 194] for purposes of, particularly, human-centric explanations in AI. Note, however, that we do not limit ourselves to human users of AI systems.  ... 
arXiv:2009.00418v2 fatcat:wvx77eo73jeb7eplcpz42lw3zq

Future reasoning machines: mind and body

Brian R. Duffy, Gregory M.P. O'Hare, John F. Bradley, Alan N. Martin, Bianca Schoen, Mourad Oussalah
2005 Kybernetes  
In investing energy in developing reasoning machines of the future, one must abstract away from the specific solutions to specific problems and ask what are the fundamental research questions that should  ...  This paper aims to revisit some fundamental perspectives and promote new approaches to reasoning machines and their associated form and function.  ...  We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Higher Education Authority (HEA) Ireland and the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology: funded by the National Development  ... 
doi:10.1108/03684920510614731 fatcat:34t57b2fjjhf3ijtrz6l377gta

Faith, reason and knowledge

Catherine D. Rau
1962 World Futures : Journal of General Evolution  
In this paper I argue that the prominent way of justifying faith in contemporary Shi'ite t Thought is the argument from the data of reason.  ...  what is available to human mind throthough his reason..  ...  This is the reason that we cannot find any sign of the inductive scientific argument from design in the works of many Muslim philosophers and theologians like Tabatabai, and we even see that it is explicitly  ... 
doi:10.1080/02604027.1962.9971411 fatcat:ou72eg6es5emzldm5zkld7gbmu

Design Reasoning Without Explanations

Richard D. Coyne
1990 The AI Magazine  
However, there is obvious merit in articulating design, separating it from other concerns, and making it an object of study and carefully reasoned reflection.  ...  Furthermore, insights could be expected to arise from the deliberations of design practitioners and critics whose activities do not come under the heading of research.  ...  Acknowledgments This work is supported by a special project grant from the University of Sydney and a project grant from the Key Centre of Design Quality, University of Sydney.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v11i4.858 dblp:journals/aim/Coyne90 fatcat:dahsjxjrcfeqpghcokl3inwj6y

Towards AI Logic for Social Reasoning [article]

Huimin Dong, Réka Markovich, Leendert van der Torre
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Besides reasoning about the knowledge and actions of individual agents, social AI logic can reason also about social dependencies among agents using the rights, obligations and permissions of the agents  ...  Fourth, we discuss how to argue about the freedom to act for intelligent agents. Examples from social, legal and ethical reasoning highlight the challenges in developing social AI logic.  ...  For the development of human AI logic, we need to understand the challenges of knowledge representation and reasoning.  ... 
arXiv:2110.04452v1 fatcat:2qnco6ytwve4rao2hrfsdcsiju

Wearable Reasoner

Valdemar Danry, Pat Pataranutaporn, Yaoli Mao, Pattie Maes
2020 Proceedings of the Augmented Humans International Conference  
We explore the impact of argumentation mining and explainability of the AI feedback on the user through an experimental study of verbal statement evaluation tasks.  ...  We explore the possibility of enhanced reasoning by implementing a wearable AI system as a human symbiotic counterpart.  ...  We are so-called "cognitive misers" [18, 78] due to the fact that the human mind is rather limited in time, knowledge, attention, and cognitive resources [73] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/3384657.3384799 dblp:conf/aughuman/DanryPMM20 fatcat:fyncrdv35jagbcnv46n5u77mpm

Artificial Intelligence is stupid and causal reasoning won't fix it [article]

John Mark Bishop
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Such technological developments from AI-labs have ushered concomitant applications across the world of business - where an AI brand tag is fast becoming ubiquitous.  ...  Artificial Neural Networks have reached Grandmaster and even super-human performance across a variety of games: from those involving perfect-information (such as Go) to those involving imperfect-information  ...  also have fully instantiated a digital [computational] mind, with all the human mind's causal power of teleology, understanding and reasoning; will AI finally have succeeded in delivering 'Strong AI  ... 
arXiv:2008.07371v1 fatcat:7sz56urg5jbc7ky5im3td3b264

When reasoning is persuasive but wrong

Robert J. Sternberg
2011 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
A wide range of evidence in the psychology of reasoning and decision making can be reinterpreted and better explained in the light of this hypothesis.  ...  Poor performance in standard reasoning tasks is explained by the lack of argumentative context.  ...  Moreover, as the brain develops through adulthood and from experience so do reasoning capabilities. My two critiques address the limited scope of the research and the neglect of human development.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x10002761 fatcat:w5r3yggz5zfx5cdz5sae7u354q

Argumentation, Education and Reasoning

Robert Binkley
1995 Informal Logic  
Logic is the normative study of reasoning, and provides the standards for correct reasoning.  ...  Argumentation studies the activity of arguing, and is related to reasoning only in that arguing involves the attempt to get an audience to reason in a certain way; correctness is not essential.  ...  Because of these limitations, we humans must usually resort to shortcuts, simplifications, approximations and heuristics.  ... 
doi:10.22329/il.v17i2.2403 fatcat:biefiynn7zbtxjilua3di5rmoe

AI and Legal Argumentation: Aligning the Autonomous Levels of AI Legal Reasoning [article]

Lance Eliot
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As such, an innovative meta-approach is proposed to apply the Levels of Autonomy (LoA) of AI Legal Reasoning (AILR) to the maturation of AI and Legal Argumentation (AILA), proffering a new means of gauging  ...  In addition to AI-enabled legal argumentation serving to augment human-based lawyering, an aspirational goal of this multi-disciplinary field consists of ultimately achieving autonomously effected human-equivalent  ...  of legal reasoning and human intelligence, all of which are essential to the discussion of legal argumentation.  ... 
arXiv:2009.11180v1 fatcat:erk7cckzuvdfzblmmt4uatp2yq

A critique of pure reason

Drew McDermott
1987 Computational intelligence  
He suggested that the use of Tarskian seniantics could allow us to study a large volume of knowledge-representation problems free from the confines of computer programs.  ...  In 1978, Patrick Hayes promulgated the Naive Physics Manifesto. (It finally appeared as an "official" publication in Hobbs and Moore 1985.)  ...  Acknowledgements I thank Larry Bimbaum, Steve Hanks, Pat Hayes, Yoav Shoham, and many others for help, some of it against their will.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8640.1987.tb00183.x fatcat:jxbqilfcejhnvgkrmmtcefndv4

Legal Judgment Prediction (LJP) Amid the Advent of Autonomous AI Legal Reasoning [article]

Lance Eliot
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The tenuous act of generating judicially laden predictions has been limited in utility and exactitude, requiring further advancement.  ...  In this paper, a review of the literature encompassing Legal Judgment Prediction is undertaken, along with innovatively proposing that the advent of AI Legal Reasoning (AILR) will have a pronounced impact  ...  Eliot is globally recognized for his expertise in AI and is the author of highly ranked AI books and columns.  ... 
arXiv:2009.14620v1 fatcat:hlu6q2zsond77nqmemaumz33ri
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