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### Page 6570 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 97K [page]

1997 Mathematical Reviews
“Sequent formalizations of three-valued logic”, by Busch, presents an overview of three-valued logic.  ...  A whole new situation arises in modal logic when worlds in modal logic are no longer two-valued but partially valued or in general three-valued.  ...

### Integration of FCA with Fuzzy logic : A survey

Mohammed Alwersh
2021 Multidiszciplináris Tudományok
The key goal is to investigate and compare different fuzzy FCA approaches that have been proposed and to clarify relationships between these approaches, as well as we will introduce a survey of the research  ...  In this paper, we will introduce a survey of the research papers on integrating FCA with fuzzy logic.  ...  In classical logic, only two values, such as 0 (False) or 1 (True), are allowed as the value for a variable; whereas fuzzy logic is a method of multi-valued logic in which every value is appropriate as  ...

### Page 5397 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 94i [page]

1994 Mathematical Reviews
Belnap’s method in which we assign values to the elements of a Boolean algebra of propositions to represent the partial knowledge known of a valuation over the algebra.  ...  In particular, he argues for a noncumulative reasoning approach. Gerd Wagner presents a generalization of the vivid logic approach of Levesque.  ...

### Page 5096 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 95i [page]

1995 Mathematical Reviews
Formal Logic 26 (1985), no. 4, 377-407; MR 87c:03014]). The novelty of his approach is a three-valued semantics (Post algebras) based on the reviewer’s notion of a Fregean frame.  ...  (A Fregean frame is a Henkin model for second-order logic extended to in- cluded a Fregean assignment of “concept-correlates”, i.e. objects, to the values assigned to the predicates in such a model.)  ...

### Formalizing Undefinedness Arising in Calculus [chapter]

William M. Farmer
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Unfortunately, the traditional approach cannot be easily employed in a standard logic in which all functions are total and all terms are defined, but it can be directly formalized in a standard logic if  ...  The traditional approach enables statements about partial functions and undefined terms to be expressed very concisely.  ...  The second choice is to select or develop a three-valued logic in which the traditional approach can be formalized. Such a logic would admit both undefined terms and undefined formulas.  ...

### Viral Logical Concept Analysis for Malware Conceptual Hierarchy Generation

Nguyen Thien Binh
2017 International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing
In this paper, we introduce an approach using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to generate a malware hierarchy.  ...  We also enhance the basic LCA to Viral Logical Concept Analysis (V-LCA), where abstraction techniques are used to abstract formal concepts representing virus samples.  ...  In our case, the formal concepts generated V-LCA are represented by logic formulas and ordered by a partial order.  ...

### Knowledge Representation Requirements for Intelligent Tutoring Systems [chapter]

Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis, Jim Prentzas
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
It appears that various hybrid approaches to knowledge representation can satisfy the requirements in a greater degree than that of single representations.  ...  So, a multi-paradigm representation environment could provide a solution to requirements satisfaction.  ...  Neural networks represent a totally different approach to AI, known as connectionism.  ...

### A comprehensive overview on the foundations of formal concept analysis

2017 Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal
The Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an efficient mathematical model used in the process of KDD which is specially designed to portray the structure of the data in a context and depict the underlying patterns  ...  Due to the huge increase in the application of FCA in various fields, the number of research and review articles on FCA has raised to a large extent.  ...  An axiomatic approach is proposed to generalize the three-way concepts learning through granular computing.  ...

### Page 4444 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 95h [page]

1995 Mathematical Reviews
For the author, “Lukasiewicz’s three- valued calculus, from the point of view of logic, represented a standard line of approach.  ...  Claiming that the use of logical matrices is undoubtedly the most natural way of achieving many-valuedness, the author gives two known criteria for identifying when a matrix determines a many-valued logic  ...

### Multi-valued Conditional Events Avoid Lewis' Triviality Result [chapter]

Tania Paneni, Romano Scozzafava
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
In particular, the well-known Lewis' triviality principles can be looked on, in this framework, under a different perspective, also due to the circumstance that the concept of "indicative conditionals"  ...  The concept of conditional event dealt with here is that given by Coletti and Scozzafava in a series of paper: a detailed account of the relevant theory is in their book "Probabilistic Logic in a Coherent  ...  We will refer to a suitable multi-valued logic (for an expository paper on this subject, see  ) with partial (and truth-functional) connectives, where the truth-values have a "logical meaning" in  ...

### Page 6959 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 95k [page]

1995 Mathematical Reviews
The paper provides an overview and a comprehensive foundational treatment of the logic of partial functions, (LPF), the core of the well-known formal software development method VDM.  ...  Summary: “A version of the temporal logic ISTL is used to demon- strate a two-stage approach to refinement of distributed programs.  ...

### Ontology-Based Approach for Human Competency Gap Analysis in Air Traffic Management

Igor Kabashkin, Nika Tikanashvili
2019 Transport and Telecommunication
courses and modules, using a formal, ontology-based approach as a tool to solve these problems.  ...  The Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP) is a flexible global engineering approach that allows all States to advance their Air Navigation capacities based on their specific operational requirements.  ...  Description logics provide formal, mathematically based, semantic definitions of concepts.  ...

### Partial Model Theory as Model Theory

Sebastian Lutz
2015 Ergo, An Open Access Journal of Philosophy
I show that the partial truth of a sentence in a partial structure is equivalent to the truth of that sentence in an expansion of a structure that corresponds naturally to the partial structure.  ...  It is a corollary that the partial truth of a sentence in a partial structure is equivalent to the truth of a specific Ramsey sentence in a corresponding structure.  ...  Muller, and two very dedicated anonymous reviewers for helpful comments, Leszek Wroński for suggesting to describe partial structures via structures in the first place, and Alana Yu for stylistic help.  ...

### Page 5784 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 91K [page]

1991 Mathematical Reviews
A function f(x), ---, Xn) is said to be a function of partial k-valued logic if the values of all its variables are taken from the set E, = {0, 1,---,k —1} and the value of the function itself is taken  ...  Within this framework the generalized modus ponens and modus tollens are formalized and a set-theoretic concept of evidence is introduced.  ...

### Page 8105 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 98M [page]

1998 Mathematical Reviews
In this model any concept may be depicted as having three characteristics: a base, a representing part and the linkage between them.  ...  This paper deals with AELB, the new logical formalism called au- toepistemic logic of knowledge and beliefs. The logic is proposed as a unifying framework for several non-monotonic formalisms.  ...
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