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CPU-less robotics: distributed control of biomorphs

Ralph Etienne-Cummings, M. Anthony Lewis, Mitra Hartmann, Avis H. Cohen, Sunny Bains, Leo J. Irakliotis
2000 Critical Technologies for the Future of Computing  
Here we describe an adaptive CPG model, implemented in a custom VLSI chip, which is used to controI an under-actuated and asymmetric robotic leg.  ...  Some researchers have tried to model the latter in software, again using CPUs. We demonstrate this idea in with an adaptive locomotion controller chip.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge support of Grant No. N00014-99-0984 from ONR to Lewis & Etienne-Cumnungs, NSF Career Grant #9896362 to Etienne-Cummings and NIH grant MH44809 to Cohen.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.409207 fatcat:gmfjkjcxxfaw5fu42x5secamuq

A functional system for high-content screening of neuromuscular junctions in vitro

A.S.T. Smith, C.J. Long, K. Pirozzi, J.J. Hickman
2013 TECHNOLOGY  
Here we present the development of such a phenotypic screening model, along with evidence of NMJ formation and motoneuron initiated neuromuscular transmission in an automated system.  ...  As such it provides a high-content test bed for the assessment of novel therapeutics and disease models.  ...  GRANT INFORMATION National Institutes of Health grant numbers R01NS050452 and R01EB009429.  ... 
doi:10.1142/s2339547813500015 pmid:25019094 pmcid:PMC4092002 fatcat:qyd5ku3dwzdclbop3n4rg3bdbm

Quantitative analysis of the excitability of hypoglossal motoneurons during natural sleep in the rat

Victor B. Fenik, Simon J. Fung, Vincent Lim, Michael H. Chase
2013 Journal of Neuroscience Methods  
After a period of adaptation to head-restraint, the animals did not exhibit any sign of discomfort and readily transitioned between the states of wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep.  ...  We describe a novel approach to assess the excitability of hypoglossal motoneurons in rats during naturally-occurring states of sleep and wakefulness.  ...  An appropriate level of anesthesia was determined by the absence of a withdrawal reflex in response to a pinch applied to a hindlimb.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2012.09.009 pmid:23017982 pmcid:PMC3508333 fatcat:wjnh733txra2ljvhbqinjjpyga

RECRUITMENT OF UPPER-LIMB MOTONEURONS WITH EPIDURAL ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE PRIMATE CERVICAL SPINAL CORD [article]

Nathan Greiner, Beatrice Barra, Giuseppe Schiavone, Nicholas James, Florian Falleger, Simon Borgognon, Stephanie Lacour, Jocelyne Bloch, Gregoire Courtine, Marco Capogrosso
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Here, we combined a realistic computational model of EES of the cervical spinal cord with experiments in macaque monkeys to explore the mechanisms of this modulation and characterize the recruitment selectivity  ...  Our results indicate that interfaces with lateral electrodes can target individual posterior roots and achieve selective modulation of arm motoneurons via the direct recruitment of pre-synaptic pathways  ...  (No. 167912 to MC), an industrial grant support from GTX Medicals to MC and GC, and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.02.17.952796 fatcat:o6hsfgwnxnf7nk6tvfrh4jg5cq

Morphology and Intrinsic Excitability of Regenerating Sensory and Motor Neurons Grown on a Line Micropattern

Ouafa Benzina, Thierry Cloitre, Marta Martin, Cédric Raoul, Csilla Gergely, Frédérique Scamps, Fabrizio Gelain
2014 PLoS ONE  
The line pattern is quite relevant for assessing the regenerative and developmental growth of sensory and motoneurons and offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry on the expression  ...  Motoneurons polarity was kept on micropattern with a long axon and small dendrites.  ...  It offers a unique model for the analysis of the impact of geometry and space constraint on expression and activity of mechanosensitive channels in DRG sensory neurons as well as in motoneurons for which  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110687 pmid:25329060 pmcid:PMC4203813 fatcat:xoc764y45ngt7lwveqx3i5vy3q

Peripheral Pathways Regulate Motoneuron Collateral Dynamics

R. Redett
2005 Journal of Neuroscience  
Motor axon number in reinnervated cutaneous and muscle pathways can then be correlated with the number of parent motoneurons determined by retrograde labeling.  ...  Without sensory competition, PMR develops in two stages: a limited response to muscle nerve and then a robust response to muscle that may involve retrograde signaling to the proximal pathway.  ...  An increase, rather than a decrease, of the number of labeled motoneurons also indicates that deafferentation has not interfered with motoneuron labeling, a possibility suggested by Peyronnard and Charron  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3105-05.2005 pmid:16221849 fatcat:logg6be3yff6xf6iofbwddxz6y

Configuration of electrical spinal cord stimulation through real-time processing of gait kinematics

Marco Capogrosso, Fabien B. Wagner, Jerome Gandar, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Nikolaus Wenger, Tomislav Milekovic, Polina Shkorbatova, Natalia Pavlova, Pavel Musienko, Erwan Bezard, Jocelyne Bloch, Grégoire Courtine
2018 Nature Protocols  
This protocol uses real-time processing of gait kinematics and locomotor performance, and can be configured within a few days.  ...  . 1234567890():,; 1234567890():,; Rat models of SCI Rats are the most commonly used animals in SCI research.  ...  W. and T.M., and a Morton Cure Paralysis Fund fellowship to T.M., as well as by the Swiss National Science Foundation, including a Bonus of Excellence (310030B_166674), the National Center of Competence  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41596-018-0030-9 pmid:30190556 fatcat:5mnqmhldxrdepn3palxfbna5a4

Activity Affects Dendritic Shape and Synapse Elimination during Steroid Controlled Dendritic Retraction in Manduca sexta

C. Duch
2004 Journal of Neuroscience  
During the metamorphosis of the moth, Manduca sexta, many larval motoneurons are remodeled to serve a new function in the adult.  ...  This interaction might be a common mechanism for rapid adjustments of rigid, inflexible, hormonal programs.  ...  The silicon cover of the electrode wires was 3 cm long, and the wires were left an additional 30 cm long to connect them to an amplifier (model 1700; A-M Systems, Carlsborg, WA).  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3189-04.2004 pmid:15525767 fatcat:t6cos4svcnaf5mond4wed4owaa

Changes in Electrophysiological Properties of Lamprey Spinal Motoneurons During Fictive Swimming

Michelle M. Martin
2002 Journal of Neurophysiology  
Electrophysiological properties of lamprey spinal motoneurons were measured to determine whether their cellular properties change as the spinal cord goes from a quiescent state to the active state of fictive  ...  Application of spiperone, a serotonin antagonist, significantly increased the sAHP amplitude during fictive swimming but had no significant effect on F-I slope or adaptation.  ...  The notochord was split down the ventral midline and pinned to the floor of a cooled chamber lined with silicone elastomer (Sylgard, Dow Corning).  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00725.2001 pmid:12424286 fatcat:bqs5uahymnbudotv6vu5i6zz5e

Tapping into spinal circuits to restore motor function

Hugues Barbeau, David A. McCrea, Michael J. O'Donovan, Serge Rossignol, Warren M. Grill, Michel A. Lemay
1999 Brain Research Reviews  
of how reflex actions can adapt to different conditions.  ...  Michel Lemay and Warren Grill discuss some of the technical challenges that must be addressed by engineers to implement a neuroprosthesis using electrical stimulation of the spinal cord, particularly the  ...  Adaptation to lesions The mechanisms of locomotor adaptation form an emerging field in studies of locomotion.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0165-0173(99)00008-9 pmid:10407124 fatcat:kepn24mujfhmnfsvnnnungi2ce

Spinal NMDA receptor activation is necessary for de novo, but not the maintenance of, A2a receptor-mediated phrenic motor facilitation

F. J. Golder
2009 Journal of applied physiology  
Activation of glutamate N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) receptors has been implicated in other models of phrenic motor plasticity.  ...  Our working model proposes that A2a receptormediated TrkB receptor activation strengthens glutamatergic synapses onto phrenic motoneurons.  ...  David Fuller, at the University of Florida, for feedback on this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00183.2009 pmid:19407255 fatcat:tpb4jkjeabhwresrdjxu3dlrvu

Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury

Nikolaus Wenger, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Jerome Gandar, Pavel Musienko, Marco Capogrosso, Laetitia Baud, Camille G Le Goff, Quentin Barraud, Natalia Pavlova, Nadia Dominici, Ivan R Minev, Leonie Asboth (+15 others)
2016 Nature Medicine  
Here we developed stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion.  ...  Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans.  ...  Habitual bipedalism elicited a series of adaptations in the dynamics of lower-limb motoneuron activation during human walking 24, 47 .  ... 
doi:10.1038/nm.4025 pmid:26779815 pmcid:PMC5061079 fatcat:tjxhcjtqvbckrmrnfmqelzvdh4

Recruitment of upper-limb motoneurons with epidural electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord

Nathan Greiner, Beatrice Barra, Giuseppe Schiavone, Henri Lorach, Nicholas James, Sara Conti, Melanie Kaeser, Florian Fallegger, Simon Borgognon, Stéphanie Lacour, Jocelyne Bloch, Grégoire Courtine (+1 others)
2021 Nature Communications  
Here, we combined a computational model of the cervical spinal cord with experiments in macaque monkeys to explore the mechanisms of upper-limb motoneuron recruitment with EES and characterize the selectivity  ...  We show that lateral electrodes produce a segmental recruitment of arm motoneurons mediated by the direct activation of sensory afferents, and that muscle responses to EES are modulated during movement  ...  Eric Rouiller for his support as director of the Platform of Translational Neuroscience of the University of Fribourg; Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41467-020-20703-1 pmid:33469022 fatcat:3wogxwvpx5bevhomgfhu5e3gzq

Epidural and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation facilitates descending inputs to upper-limb motoneurons in monkeys

Thomas Guiho, Stuart N Baker, Andrew Jackson
2021 Journal of Neural Engineering  
The time- and frequency-dependence of dorsal SCS effects could be explained by a simple model in which transynaptic excitation of motoneurons was gated by prior stimuli through presynaptic mechanisms.  ...  Epidural SCS was delivered via a novel multielectrode cuff placed around both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the cervical spinal cord, while transcutaneous SCS was delivered using a high carrier frequency  ...  This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (106149) and an ERANET Neuron joint call co-funded by the Medical Research Council (R001189).  ... 
doi:10.1088/1741-2552/abe358 pmid:33540399 pmcid:PMC8208633 fatcat:u4js5nqjsbcbjbmzn46q7o5k3a

PICs in motoneurons do not scale with the size of the animal: a possible mechanism for faster speed of muscle contraction in smaller species

Seoan Huh, Ramamurthy Siripuram, Robert H. Lee, Vladimir V. Turkin, Derek O'Neill, Thomas M. Hamm, Charles J. Heckman, Marin Manuel
2017 Journal of Neurophysiology  
PICs in motoneurons do not scale with the size of the animal: a possible mechanism for faster speed of muscle contraction in smaller species.  ...  As a consequence, motoneuronal firing rate sharply increases as animal size decreases.  ...  Whereas cat motoneurons are known to have firing behaviors closer to those of human subjects, a deeper understanding of mouse motoneurons is becoming more essential because many genetic models of human  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00045.2017 pmid:28356469 pmcid:PMC5494365 fatcat:oo63taracbbmnlmiew36tnpcna
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