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A neural network based real-time gaze tracker

Nischal M. Piratla, Anura P. Jayasumana
2002 Journal of Network and Computer Applications  
This arti®cial neural network based system can be trained and customized for an individual.  ...  A real-time gaze-tracking system that estimates the user's eye gaze and computes the window of focused view on a computer monitor has been developed.  ...  The case in which the eye tracker is not used is also shown in Fig. 11 . Conclusion We have presented the implementation of a non-intrusive gaze tracker using neural networks.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jnca.2002.0142 fatcat:vmlobyyusrgjfdhk4ywg5jgpvy

Real-time eye gaze tracking with an unmodified commodity webcam employing a neural network

Weston Sewell, Oleg Komogortsev
2010 Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems - CHI EA '10  
This paper presents a methodology for real-time eye gaze tracking using a standard webcam without the need for hardware modification or special placement.  ...  An artificial neural network was employed to estimate the location of the user's gaze based on an image of the user's eye, mimicking the way that humans determine where another person is looking.  ...  Previous implementations of neural network based eye trackers used networks with at least three layers [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/1753846.1754048 dblp:conf/chi/SewellK10 fatcat:xhzzhsxk65hkxplvur26wjgci4

iShadow

Addison Mayberry, Pan Hu, Benjamin Marlin, Christopher Salthouse, Deepak Ganesan
2014 Proceedings of the 12th annual international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services - MobiSys '14  
The sparse pixel-based gaze estimation algorithm is a multi-layer neural network learned using a state-ofthe-art sparsity-inducing regularization function that minimizes the gaze prediction error while  ...  The challenge is that a real-time eye tracker is a power-hungry and computation-intensive device which requires continuous sensing of the eye using an imager running at many tens of frames per second,  ...  ., for a great deal of crucial support and advice for the Stonyman cameras. We are also very grateful to our shepherd, Prof.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2594368.2594388 pmid:26539565 pmcid:PMC4629875 dblp:conf/mobisys/MayberryHMSG14 fatcat:pfh2r5kt55b4rgwtnwxelq2g7q

A Gaze-depth Estimation Technique with an Implicit and Continuous Data Acquisition for OST-HMDs [article]

Youngho Lee, Thammathip Piumsomboon, Barrett Ens, Gun A. Lee, Arindam Dey, Mark Billinghurst
2017 International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments  
The gaze data acquired through the eye-tracker include the inter-pupillary distance (IPD) and the gaze distance to the real and virtual target for each eye.  ...  In this paper, we propose an implicit and continuous data acquisition method for 3D gaze depth estimation for an optical see-Through head mounted display (OST-HMD) equipped with an eye tracker.  ...  Once those data is input into the neural network, a suitable model is generated. Then, we can predict an estimated distance, with a gaze data as an input.  ... 
doi:10.2312/egve.20171364 dblp:conf/egve/LeePELDB17 fatcat:dcyqliefe5bw7npsfr7nlkkjni

A Novel Approach to Real-time Non-intrusive Gaze Finding

L.-Q. Xu, D. Machin, P. Sheppard
1998 Procedings of the British Machine Vision Conference 1998  
We investigate a holistic approach to real-time gaze tracking by means of a well-defined neural network modelling strategy combined with robust image processing algorithms.  ...  In operation, the gaze tracker provides a fast, cheap, and flexible means finding the focus of a user's attention on any of the objects displayed on a computer screen.  ...  In this paper, we present a neural network based real-time non-intrusive gaze tracker.  ... 
doi:10.5244/c.12.43 dblp:conf/bmvc/XuMS98 fatcat:ofyhzbovrrdulaypn77htsnfha

Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) based Eye-Gaze Tracking System using Machine Learning Algorithm

Prakash Kanade, Fortune David, Sunay Kanade
2021 European Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science  
A deep learning-based gaze estimation technique has been considered to solve this issue, with an emphasis on WSN based Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based system.  ...  The proposed study proposes the following architecture, which is focused on data science: The first is a novel neural network model that is programmed to manipulate any possible visual feature, such as  ...  under real-world conditions is still lacking. ▪ A deep learning-based gaze estimation technique has been considered to solve this challenge, with an emphasis on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based  ... 
doi:10.24018/ejece.2021.5.2.314 fatcat:u2khdsussrdhtfclliqclw56xy

A neural network for 3D gaze recording with binocular eye trackers

Kai Essig, Marc Pomplun, Helge Ritter
2006 International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems  
In order to tackle this problem, we developed an anaglyph-based 3D calibration procedure and used a well-suited type of artificial neural network-a parametrized selforganizing map (PSOM)-to estimate the  ...  Besides higher cost and effort for the experimental setup, the main reason for the avoidance of 3D displays is the problem of computing a subject's current 3D gaze position based on the measured binocular  ...  As a baseline for assessing the performance of the neural network, we determine the precision of a purely geometrical solution. This solution is based on the standard 2D calibration.  ... 
doi:10.1080/17445760500354440 fatcat:qpdj566y6vdullfo5ljz5j4xuu

iShadow

Addison Mayberry, Pan Hu, Benjamin Marlin, Christopher Salthouse, Deepak Ganesan
2014 Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications - ETRA '14  
We use a sparse pixel-based gaze estimation algorithm that is a multi-layer neural network learned using a state-of-the-art sparsity-inducing regularization function which minimizes the gaze prediction  ...  The challenge is that a real-time eye tracker is a power-hungry and computation-intensive device which requires continuous sensing of the eye using an imager running at many tens of frames per second,  ...  The second step is the neural network based sparse pixel selection algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2578153.2582177 dblp:conf/etra/MayberryHMSG14 fatcat:mzbhtisduba4thvoocuwh6miou

Eye and gaze tracking for interactive graphic display

Zhiwei Zhu, Qiang Ji
2004 Machine Vision and Applications  
This paper describes preliminary results we have obtained in developing a computer vision system based on active IR illumination for real time gaze tracking for interactive graphic display.  ...  This is made possible by a new gaze calibration procedure that identifies the mapping from pupil parameters to screen coordinates using the Generalized Regression Neural Networks (GRNN).  ...  Here, we introduce a new gaze calibration based on Neural Network to overcome these two limitations.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00138-004-0139-4 fatcat:lqod7vw6ivbilpczy6vzceskti

Eye and gaze tracking for interactive graphic display

Qiang Ji, Zhiwei Zhu
2002 Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Smart graphics - SMARTGRAPH '02  
This paper describes preliminary results we have obtained in developing a computer vision system based on active IR illumination for real time gaze tracking for interactive graphic display.  ...  This is made possible by a new gaze calibration procedure that identifies the mapping from pupil parameters to screen coordinates using the Generalized Regression Neural Networks (GRNN).  ...  Here, we introduce a new gaze calibration based on Neural Network to overcome these two limitations.  ... 
doi:10.1145/569005.569017 fatcat:42guim5ylnh7dc5dhtrieqyzqi

Optical Gaze Tracking with Spatially-Sparse Single-Pixel Detectors [article]

Richard Li, Eric Whitmire, Michael Stengel, Ben Boudaoud, Jan Kautz, David Luebke, Shwetak Patel, Kaan Akşit
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Our first prototype uses a neural network to obtain an average error rate of 2.67 at 400Hz while demanding only 16mW.  ...  Traditional camera-based gaze trackers used in next generation displays are known to be lacking in one or multiple of the following metrics: power consumption, cost, computational complexity, estimation  ...  We then use a fully connected neural network to process the recorded signals and estimate a gaze orientation, constituting our first standalone wearable gaze tracker prototype, NextGaze.  ... 
arXiv:2009.06875v1 fatcat:g5m74y43uvhupp5da2jx5gaphy

Head pose‐free gaze estimation using domain adaptation

Byungtae Ahn, Minseok Seo, Dong‐Geol Choi
2021 Electronics Letters  
This study proposes a head pose-free 3D gaze estimation method using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN).  ...  A domain adaptation method to reduce the feature gap between real and synthetic image data is also proposed here.  ...  We adopt an appearancebased approach and propose a 3D gaze estimation method using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN). We train the network using both synthetic data and real image data.  ... 
doi:10.1049/ell2.12247 fatcat:i5i5or7dszeejljmemr7bvdm5m

Cognitive state measurement from eye gaze analysis in an intelligent virtual reality driving system for autism intervention

Lian Zhang, Joshua Wade, Amy Swanson, Amy Weitlauf, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
2015 2015 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII)  
Results will be used to build models in an intelligent VR-based driving system that can sense a participant's real-time cognitive load and offer driving tasks at an appropriate difficulty level in order  ...  In this paper, a novel virtual reality (VR)-based driving system with different difficulty levels of tasks is presented to train and improve driving skills of teenagers with ASD.  ...  These three components of the VR-based driving system were synchronized by time stamped events from the driving simulator via a local area network (LAN).  ... 
doi:10.1109/acii.2015.7344621 dblp:conf/acii/ZhangWSWWS15 fatcat:hcphtxtx7zcu7oyczmt6vejvsi

Convolutional Neural Network Implementation for Eye-Gaze Estimation on Low-Quality Consumer Imaging Systems

Joseph Lemley, Anuradha Kar, Alexandru Drimbarean, Peter Corcoran
2019 IEEE transactions on consumer electronics  
In this paper a new hardware friendly, convolutional neural network model with minimal computational requirements is introduced and assessed for efficient appearance-based gaze estimation.  ...  The model is tested and compared against existing appearance based CNN approaches, achieving better eye gaze accuracy with significantly fewer computational requirements.  ...  In [46] , a CNN-based real time, calibration-free gaze estimation algorithm is presented.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tce.2019.2899869 fatcat:mker4tuvujevdackzb2m6ubgu4

The eyes know it: FakeET – An Eye-tracking Database to Understand Deepfake Perception [article]

Parul Gupta, Komal Chugh, Abhinav Dhall, Ramanathan Subramanian
2020 arXiv   pre-print
FakeET contains viewing patterns compiled from 40 users via the Tobii desktop eye-tracker for 811 videos from the Google Deepfake dataset, with a minimum of two viewings per video.  ...  The compiled data confirms (a) distinct eye movement characteristics for real vs fake videos; (b) utility of the eye-track saliency maps for spatial forgery localization and detection, and (c) Error Related  ...  instance learning, Siamese neural networks) can be explored to improve EEG-based FD as in [18] .  ... 
arXiv:2006.06961v2 fatcat:5ppqezyczjaojhanmn25il3lyy
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