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Component-Based Formal Modeling of PLC Systems

Rui Wang, Yong Guan, Luo Liming, Xiaojuan Li, Jie Zhang
2013 Journal of Applied Mathematics  
This paper proposes a systemic method for the construction of verification model. PLC system architecture and PLC features are modeled as components. This is universal for all PLC applications.  ...  We give an automatic translation method for software modeling based on operational semantics. A small example is demonstrated for our approach.  ...  Formalization of PLC Features PLC System Architecture. This section proposes the modelling framework for complicated software-hardware mixed system.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/721624 fatcat:aqwse4rbjzcyzbxsqx3kfz32em

A Survey of Security Vulnerability Analysis, Discovery, Detection, and Mitigation on IoT Devices

Miao Yu, Jianwei Zhuge, Ming Cao, Zhiwei Shi, Lin Jiang
2020 Future Internet  
Finally, we forecast and discuss the research directions on vulnerability analysis techniques of IoT devices.  ...  This paper first describes the research background, including IoT architecture, device components, and attack surfaces.  ...  For example, the dynamic analysis relies on the ability to execute software in a controlled environment, often an instrumented emulator [43] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi12020027 fatcat:rbg5eyfvj5h7lezzzyiyhjrpci

MOS: An integrated model-based and search-based testing tool for Function Block Diagrams

Eduard Paul Enoiu, Kivanc Doganay, Markus Bohlin, Daniel Sundmark, Paul Pettersson
2013 2013 1st International Workshop on Combining Modelling and Search-Based Software Engineering (CMSBSE)  
In the current work, we describe the architecture of the tool, its workflow process, and a case study in which the tool has been applied in a real industrial setting to test a train control management  ...  Index Terms-model-based software testing, search-based software testing, timed automata, programmable logic controllers. 978-1-4673-6284-9/13 c 2013 IEEE CMSBSE 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA Accepted for  ...  The IEC 61131-3 standard proposes a hierarchical software architecture for structuring and running any FBD program.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cmsbse.2013.6605711 dblp:conf/icse/EnoiuDBSP13 fatcat:roxzhtrcencxxdaelvijvszszm

FieldFuzz: Enabling vulnerability discovery in Industrial Control Systems supply chain using stateful system-level fuzzing [article]

Andrei Bytes, Prashant Hari Narayan Rajput, Michail Maniatakos, Jianying Zhou
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we implement FieldFuzz, a methodology for discovering supply chain vulnerabilities in every PLC component using stateful black-box fuzzing without the requirement of a real device.  ...  Security analysis of Operational Technology (OT) software, specifically, the control runtime and IEC applications, remains relatively unexplored due to its proprietary nature.  ...  IEC 61131-3 is a standard that encompasses everything concerning software architecture and supported languages for programming a PLC, including the specifics on syntax, semantics, data types, variable  ... 
arXiv:2204.13499v1 fatcat:sxzcuj2rpjad5ocipta2xkv32m

Investigating Safety of a Radiotherapy Machine Using System Models with Pluggable Checkers [chapter]

Stuart Pernsteiner, Calvin Loncaric, Emina Torlak, Zachary Tatlock, Xi Wang, Michael D. Ernst, Jonathan Jacky
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Formal techniques for guaranteeing software correctness have made tremendous progress in recent decades.  ...  Our case study uncovered subtle safety-critical flaws in a prerelease of the latest version of the radiotherapy system's control software.  ...  Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41540-6_2 fatcat:sfkbeo4rxjbkbhpb57qjeqqkhq

Evolution of software in automated production systems: Challenges and research directions

Birgit Vogel-Heuser, Alexander Fay, Ina Schaefer, Matthias Tichy
2015 Journal of Systems and Software  
Coping with evolution in automated production systems implies a cross-disciplinary challenge along the system's life-cycle for variant-rich systems of high complexity.  ...  Selected challenges are illustrated on the case of a simple pick and place unit.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the DFG (German Research Foundation) under the Priority Programme SPP 1593: Design For Future -Managed Software Evolution (Grant numbers FA 853/6-1,  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.026 fatcat:og7o65gas5cxbcb2rubsdfdory


Lucian Cojocar, Jonas Zaddach, Roel Verdult, Herbert Bos, Aurélien Francillon, Davide Balzarotti
2015 Proceedings of the 31st Annual Computer Security Applications Conference on - ACSAC 2015  
Specifically we establish and evaluate a heuristic for detecting this type of code by means of static analysis.  ...  GPS receiver, a power meter, a hard disk drive (HDD) and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).  ...  We also thank our anonymous reviewers for their invaluable feedback.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2818000.2818035 dblp:conf/acsac/CojocarZVBFB15 fatcat:ionhfyhch5dg3emqh6nngiw7ru

A Model-driven Mobile HMI Framework (MMHF) for Industrial Control Systems

Iqra Qasim, Muhammad Waseem Anwar, Farooque Azam, Hanny Tufail, Wasi Haider Butt, Muhammad Nouman Zafar
2020 IEEE Access  
With the advent of software technologies, over a period of time, the Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) have grown exponentially.  ...  MMHF comprises, a Unified Modeling Language (UML) Profile for Mobile HMI (UMLPMH) for modeling of HMI screens.  ...  It reengineers HMI by performing static analysis of its available source code and extract the central information to develop implementation independent model.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2965259 fatcat:g7zmzn46nndjpln7iiot3tzy2u

Design and Implementation of the SNMP Agents for Remote Monitoring and Control via UML and Petri Nets

J.-S. Lee, P.-L. Hsu
2004 IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology  
For large-scale and long-distance distributed systems, this paper proposes a systematical multiparadigm approach to develop the simple network management protocol (SNMP) agents for remote monitoring and  ...  The developed system has been used successfully in a mobile switching center (MSC) of Taiwan Cellular Corporation for the remote monitoring and control, through the Internet, of its environmental conditions  ...  Tsai, Engineering Director of the Industrial Control Business, Mirle Automation Corporation, Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park, Taiwan, for his great help in developing this work.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcst.2004.824287 fatcat:deabeqk3vbcqphoadgoyjd3ke4


2020 International Journal of Mechatronics and Applied Mechanics  
To study the control system of lights in an intelligent power-saving circuit, a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based intelligent street light control system is proposed.  ...  The collected information of various sensing devices is used as a fuzzy input reference quantity to carry out fuzzy logic analysis and intelligently control the street lighting levels, thereby realizing  ...  This study explores the design and implementation of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)-based control system for lights in the intelligent circuit.  ... 
doi:10.17683/ijomam/issue8.47 fatcat:nkpn2g4mvzhdrjgxmdspfwf6ma

Exploiting a Graphical Programming Paradigm to Facilitate Rigorous Verification of Embedded Software

W. A. Halang, B. Kramer, L. Trybus
1995 Computer journal  
A computing architecture enabling economical safety licensing of software embedded in safety-critical technical systems is defined. The architecture relies on mature methods and technology only.  ...  For safety-related program controlled electronic systems, safety licensing of software is extremely critical, since it is far from being as dependable as hardware.  ...  The different representation levels of a program, viz., Function Block Diagram, net list and object code for the interpreter in our architecture, are shown in full detail.  ... 
doi:10.1093/comjnl/38.4.301 fatcat:d57gtrxdbbf3nnvjlwpjwueqfq

A Survey on Recent Advanced Research of CPS Security

Zhenhua Wang, Wei Xie, Baosheng Wang, Jing Tao, Enze Wang
2021 Applied Sciences  
Finally, we also perform a statistical analysis in terms of paper publication times, author institutes, countries, and sponsors to show the current worldwide CPS security research situation.  ...  Then, we analyze hotspots and trends of CPS security technologies in three dimensions: (1) architecture layers (perception, network, and application); (2) application scenarios (smart grids, health care  ...  SAINT [52] is a static taint analysis tool for sensitive information tracking in Smart-Things apps.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11093751 fatcat:fxby2wjzpnchrfshvilxalmptm

Taming the War in Memory: A Resilient Mitigation Strategy Against Memory Safety Attacks in CPS [article]

Eyasu Getahun Chekole, Unnikrishnan Cheramangalath, Sudipta Chattopadhyay, Martin Ochoa, Guo Huaqun
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Although a wide-range of defense techniques have been developed against these attacks, the existing mitigation strategies have several limitations.  ...  To address this problem, we propose CIMA -- a resilient and light-weight mitigation technique that prevents invalid memory accesses at runtime.  ...  To diagnosis the root cause of the attack, Sting leverages a heavy-weight static taint analysis.  ... 
arXiv:1809.07477v2 fatcat:qhmxbu7qene2pmsmtywstuuaae

Industrial Control Systems (ICS): Cyber-attacks & Security Optimization

Erhovwosere Donald Emake, Ibrahim Adepoju Adeyanju, Godwin Obruozie Uzedhe
2020 International journal of computer engineering and information technology  
Other aspect of the paper examines current ICS security technologies including a computational secured algorithm for PLC  ...  More recently, there are myriad of security threats and attacks by malicious elements on ICS which now presents a priority to organizations and researchers for optimal security solutions.  ...  This was made possible by a research group with considerable success recorded with a technique historically used for automated software package verification.  ... 
doi:10.47277/ijceit/12(5)1 fatcat:homjtlsndjhexljrtxvurb42vi

Exploiting JTAG and Its Mitigation in IOT: A Survey

Gopal Vishwakarma, Wonjun Lee
2018 Future Internet  
These companies usually and obviously hunt for lucrative business models.  ...  This JTAG interface can be used as a backdoor entry to access and exploit devices, also defined as a physical attack.  ...  Attacks on Android OS Fault injection is a well known term in the software industry for when the robustness of software is tested by injecting various code paths and analyzing behavior of the code.  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi10120121 fatcat:amsmnrbwvfe4pi3w3xjaidvmqm
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