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A little goes a long way: Improving toxic language classification despite data scarcity [article]

Mika Juuti, Tommi Gröndahl, Adrian Flanagan, N. Asokan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Detection of some types of toxic language is hampered by extreme scarcity of labeled training data. Data augmentation - generating new synthetic data from a labeled seed dataset - can help.  ...  The efficacy of data augmentation on toxic language classification has not been fully explored.  ...  Our goal is to understand how data augmentation improves performance under extreme data scarcity in the minority class (threat).  ... 
arXiv:2009.12344v2 fatcat:6uwcp2o5efgrhh5uc3e725loym

A little goes a long way: Improving toxic language classification despite data scarcity

Mika Juuti, Tommi Gröndahl, Adrian Flanagan, N. Asokan
2020 Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020   unpublished
Our goal is to understand how data augmentation improves performance under extreme data scarcity in the minority class (threat).  ...  The effectiveness of data augmentation for toxic language classification has not yet been thoroughly explored.  ...  come to your house and kill you 2. if you do not stop, the wikapidea nijas will come to your house and kill you 3. if you do not stop, the wikapidea nijas will come to your house and kill you EDA: Easy Data  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2020.findings-emnlp.269 fatcat:gksjpe4ch5az3p3vs6knkoor2m

Ten Ways States Can Combat Ocean Acidification (and Why They Should)

Ryan P. Kelly, Margaret (Meg) R. Caldwell
2012 Social Science Research Network  
Finally, because our understanding of coastal acidification has been hindered by a scarcity of reliable monitoring, the data--collection aspect of a TMDL process would also be valuable. that a TMDL sets  ...  Second, states could define new designated uses for coastal water bodies in such a way as to improve ecological resilience. a.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2020520 fatcat:nopof47mxbbnnfiyqyntms2f6q

THE POTENTIAL OF SYNERGY – DEVELOPING A TOOL TO DESIGN ECOSYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT

Tsilla Boisselet
2017 European Journal of Sustainable Development  
As the tool gains strength from generated data, it evolves into a simulation model for several-component ecosystem-like systems.  ...  In this way, the tool establishes a solid base to support and accelerate applicability of intercropping-type methods, providing realistic expectations about growth and harvest over time, including ecological  ...  Introduction Past and current improvement strategies for agricultural productivity consisted in finding better ways to manage and save on a whole range of inputs and improvement in the quality of these  ... 
doi:10.14207/ejsd.2017.v6n4p517 fatcat:4774psxafjd75j2cjvmdnvm6ta

The Perils of Unreasonable Risk: Information, Regulatory Policy, and Toxic Substances Control

John S. Applegate
1991 Columbia Law Review  
., supra note 6, at 177-78 ("Little is gained from the sophisticated massaging of weak data. The key challenge is to improve the quality of the data used in risk assessment."); LESTER B.  ...  Despite the similarity in language, courts have interpreted emergency provisions in other statutes more loosely.  ...  core substantive criterion for planning in national forests." 8 Multiple use requires the balancing of renewable resources, nonrenewable resources, recreation, wilderness, watershed, and fishing. 5 9 Despite  ... 
doi:10.2307/1122760 fatcat:vhngyko5izd3rjb3mp2xhsmynq

Directions in abusive language training data, a systematic review: Garbage in, garbage out

Bertie Vidgen, Leon Derczynski, Natalia Grabar
2020 PLoS ONE  
It also reports on creation of a dedicated website for cataloguing abusive language data hatespeechdata.com.  ...  This paper systematically reviews 63 publicly available training datasets which have been created to train abusive language classifiers.  ...  Data trusts. Data trusts have been described as a way of sharing data 'in a fair, safe and equitable way' ([135] p. 46).  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243300 pmid:33370298 fatcat:o42xcoc5ybarjac7opss6cizti

A Roadmap for Big Model [article]

Sha Yuan, Hanyu Zhao, Shuai Zhao, Jiahong Leng, Yangxiao Liang, Xiaozhi Wang, Jifan Yu, Xin Lv, Zhou Shao, Jiaao He, Yankai Lin, Xu Han (+88 others)
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We introduce 16 specific BM-related topics in those four parts, they are Data, Knowledge, Computing System, Parallel Training System, Language Model, Vision Model, Multi-modal Model, Theory&Interpretability  ...  At the end of this paper, we conclude the further development of BMs in a more general view.  ...  Despite this significant progress, we should point out that it still remains a long way to well understand the neural networks even for two-layer ones in theory.  ... 
arXiv:2203.14101v4 fatcat:rdikzudoezak5b36cf6hhne5u4

On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models [article]

Rishi Bommasani, Drew A. Hudson, Ehsan Adeli, Russ Altman, Simran Arora, Sydney von Arx, Michael S. Bernstein, Jeannette Bohg, Antoine Bosselut, Emma Brunskill, Erik Brynjolfsson, Shyamal Buch (+102 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks.  ...  This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical  ...  Language model is too narrow; as we describe, the scope of foundation models goes well beyond language.  ... 
arXiv:2108.07258v2 fatcat:yktkv4diyrgzzfzqlpvaiabc2m

Ambivalent food experiences: Healthy eating and food changes in the lives of Ikojts with diabetes

Laura Montesi
2017 International Review of Social Research  
Based on one year of fieldwork, this article argues that a healthy diet is a shared discursive social practice that enables the articulation of (sometimes radically) different understandings of food and  ...  Indeed, diabetes is symptomatic of larger societal issues originating from a rapidly changing context.  ...  can be toxic to a person who is emotionally out of control.  ... 
doi:10.1515/irsr-2017-0012 fatcat:zkjjqxo7ubdelj57ms7elbiove

Can Water Abundance Compensate for Weak Water Governance? Determining and Comparing Dimensions of Irrigation Water Security in Tajikistan

Frederike Klümper, Thomas Herzfeld, Insa Theesfeld
2017 Water  
We developed an irrigation water security index, which we empirically tested using farm household survey data (N = 399).  ...  Irrigation water security is investigated by three different dimensions: (a) a hydrology dimension, expressing a lack of water availability; (b) a governance dimension, the perceived difficulty in accessing  ...  [32] have developed a national hydro-economic classification of water security that includes an institutional as well as a hydrological dimension.  ... 
doi:10.3390/w9040286 fatcat:pgsyloklu5frlcrodwi7wjn3ly

Water Quality Management in Egypt

Safwat Abdel-Dayem
2011 International Journal of Water Resources Development  
These categories are as follows: past data management; present data management; and future data management. It is within this classification system that data management will be discussed.  ...  not being EEAA on a long-term basis.  ...  Data Management and Information Systems -How is the data currently processed? -Is the data analysed and evaluated in a timely manner? -Is the water quality information easily accessible to the users?  ... 
doi:10.1080/07900627.2010.531522 fatcat:jfe54bmchfd2hijuq2ihf47eje

Prevalence and Mortality of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in West Africa: Biologic and Sociocultural Factors

Gift C. Nwagu, Shristi Bhattarai, Monica Swahn, Saad Ahmed, Ritu Aneja
2021 JCO Global Oncology  
features, including a high risk of distant metastasis, 12 high recurrence rates, 13 and poor treatment response. 6 Despite their clinical success against HER2-positive BC, anti-HER2 therapies are  ...  Choosing Wisely Africa identified that palliative care in patients with advanced disease improved treatment outcomes and reduced treatment costs in the long run. 96 cess to chemotherapy equipment and  ...  Open Payments is a public database containing information reported by companies about payments made to US-licensed physicians (Open Payments). No potential conflicts of interest were reported.  ... 
doi:10.1200/go.21.00082 pmid:34264759 pmcid:PMC8457872 fatcat:5czgejfajrhgddiwjckzqe7lzu

Will Curiosity® Kill the Cat?

Garrett Bunyak
2019 Humanimalia - a journal of human/animal interface studies  
As a microcosm of broader trends, this case suggests a scientific enterprise geared towards controlling the "non-human world" may be more of a threat to global ecological processes than the very problems  ...  Deploying a posthumanist framework, this genealogy examines efforts to manage and destroy free-living cat populations with and through technoscience.  ...  These contradictory narratives are worth exploring in a little more detail.  ... 
doi:10.52537/humanimalia.9508 fatcat:jso2r7dn45crjibdektiawlopy

The Balance between Energy, Environmental Security, and Technical Performance: The Regulatory Challenge of Nanofluids

Maria José Lourenço, João Alexandre, Charlotte Huisman, Xavier Paredes, Carlos Nieto de Castro
2021 Nanomaterials  
In this study, general data regarding the safety of NF (synthetic and natural) are discussed, for a necessary reflection leading to the elaboration of a methodology looking at the near future, intended  ...  There are thousands of publications that examine the use of NFs, their benefits and drawbacks, properties, behaviors, etc., but very little is known about the safety of some of these systems at a laboratory  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal, by its support through grants OE/QUI/UI100/2013, UID/QUIM/0100/2019 and UIDB/QUIM/ 0100/2020 to Centro  ... 
doi:10.3390/nano11081871 fatcat:aqkdpenfinhttfl3rytqlralgq

Acesso ao diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente: análise discursiva

Jaqueline Garcia de Almeida Ballestero, Ana Carolina Scarpel Moncaio, Rafaella Coutinho Grecco Aguiar, Noriza Veiga, Fábio Muniz de Holanda Bento, Pedro Fredemir Palha
2019 Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line  
Descriptores: Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos; Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud; Acceso Universal a Servicios de Salud; Terapia por Observación Directa; Investigación Cualitativa  ...  Descriptores: Tuberculosis Resistente a Múltiples Medicamentos; Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud; Acceso Universal a Servicios de Salud; Terapia por Observación Directa; Investigación Cualitativa  ...  (P2) The At Yeah, their system here is a little complicated, it's a little rule from here, a little rule from there, which, in my view, there is no need, but it has to be, right?  ... 
doi:10.5205/1981-8963.2019.239406 fatcat:t2szfjgec5c7rmt57cucnuqr7e
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