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A Fuzzy Logic and Default Reasoning Model of Social Norm and Equilibrium Selection in Games under Unforeseen Contingencies

Lorenzo Sacconi, Stefano Moretti
2004 Social Science Research Network  
This paper focuses on the role that social norms play in the selection of equilibrium points seen as social conventions under unforeseen contingencies -that is, their role in the emergence of regularities  ...  In order to solve such a problem we introduces a selection process based on the reformulation of default logic in terms of possibility theory.  ...  We here use this possibility approach to the study of the default equilibrium selection reasoning in a game situation where nature selects unforeseen states of the world, so that it is vague which of two  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.731645 fatcat:jtnm77i5tzannjeggadinp4l5y

A FUZZY LOGIC AND DEFAULT REASONING MODEL OF SOCIAL NORMS AND EQUILIBRIUM SELECTION IN GAMES UNDER UNFORESEEN CONTINGENCIES

LORENZO SACCONI, STEFANO MORETTI
2008 International Journal of Uncertainty Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Systems  
Introduction and motivation This paper focuses on the role that norms play in the selection of equilibrium points seen as social conventions under unforeseen contingencies -that is in the emergence of  ...  Thus the solution concept the players may select as equilibrium of the game under unforeseen contingencies is only a conjectural solution concept, in the sense that it is conditional on a given default  ...  In other words any "eductive" equilibrium selection process endowed with a common prior must assume limited reasoning based on building-block such as deductive steps based on fallible and retractable conjectures  ... 
doi:10.1142/s0218488508005042 fatcat:hdpv7nxuqfbpzf4txtnjcvllle

Incomplete Contracts and Corporate Ethics: A Game Theoretical Model Under Fuzzy Information

Lorenzo Sacconi
2003 Social Science Research Network  
There is a basic analogy between default reasoning and the rule given above for evaluating actions under unforeseen contingencies.  ...  It is then suggested a second tentative modelling of players' inferences in the terms of the logic of default reasoning (Reiter 1980 , Ginsberg 1987 .  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.402260 fatcat:vqs3il7gorfftfkc4akxkrsdpm

Incomplete contracts and corporate ethics [chapter]

Lorenzo Sacconi
2007 Legal Orderings and Economic Institutions  
There is a basic analogy between default reasoning and the rule given above for evaluating actions under unforeseen contingencies.  ...  It is then suggested a second tentative modelling of players' inferences in the terms of the logic of default reasoning (Reiter 1980 , Ginsberg 1987 .  ... 
doi:10.4324/9780203391327.ch16 fatcat:ulz4skomkfd2tehcbx2md7veoe

A Rawlsian View of CSR and the Game Theory of its Implementation (Part I): The Multistakeholder Model of Corporate Governance

Lorenzo Sacconi
2010 Social Science Research Network  
The problem under consideration is twofold: (i) the problem of equilibrium selection within a given game form, where an old equilibrium path (old institution) has been abandoned for whatever reason and  ...  It logically precedes historical legal constructs that without necessity may legally obstruct by design (or due to contingent historical equilibrium paths) the emergence of such a normative model.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1777922 fatcat:kmm7bik7xfgm3dmuwgk7h6zcxm

CSR as Contractarian Model of Multi-Stakeholder Corporate Governance and the Game-Theory of its Implementation

Lorenzo Sacconi
2008 Social Science Research Network  
It is shown that they allow the description of strategies and equilibria, even if multiple, in a game played under unforeseen contingencies.  ...  As far as implementation of the normative model is concerned, four roles of voluntary but explicit CSR norms or social standard are presented in terms of a non-cooperative game theory of implementation  ...  They allow the description of strategies and equilibrium points, even if the equilibria are multiple, in a game played under unforeseen contingencies.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1163704 fatcat:u234emuzrnax7lcunnya3zqqte

The Efficiency of the Non-profit Enterprise: Constitutional Ideology, Conformist Preferences and Reputation [chapter]

Lorenzo Sacconi
2004 Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy  
The logic at work here is "default reasoning" as based on fuzzy semantics.  ...  the NPE as a whole and its external stakeholders within a repeated game (see. sec.6. proposition V in particular), whose stagegame is the typical game of trust played under incomplete knowledge and unforeseen  ...  For an application to game theory and particularly on problems of equilibrium selection , see Sacconi and Moretti (2002) . 22 Possibly someone would find here the risk of a composition failure.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-10347-0_11 fatcat:6xvebeiesffv5ic6nliyhuw5t4

A Rawlsian View of CSR and the Game Theory of its Implementation (Part II): Fairness and Equilibrium

Lorenzo Sacconi
2010 Social Science Research Network  
In fact, in that unforeseen events are defined as fuzzy sets, understood as application domains (sets) for principles of behaviour (corresponding to can be modelled in a similar way.  ...  part I of this essay (see Sacconi 2010a, infra). i.e. the specification of the vague game form of the underling trust game played by stakeholders and firms under unforeseen contingencies.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1777989 fatcat:xnf73bo745dkxgvaf5tkf4juce

A Rawlsian View of CSR and the Game Theory of its Implementation (Part II): Fairness and Equilibrium [chapter]

Lorenzo Sacconi
2011 Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance  
Normative selection of an equilibrium: Binmore vindicates Rawls By "normative role" I mean the function of a contractarian fairness principle in giving impartial reasons for singling out a unique equilibrium  ...  In fact, in that unforeseen events are defined as fuzzy sets, understood as application domains (sets) for principles of behaviour (corresponding to strategies) contingent on unforeseen states, the players  ... 
doi:10.1057/9780230302112_8 fatcat:ouqp722burdszkkpssjdzx3aty

A Social Contract Account for CSR as Extended Model of Corporate Governance (Part I): Rational Bargaining and Justification

Lorenzo Sacconi
2005 Social Science Research Network  
This is a sequential model of constitutional choice, where at the first step a constitution is chosen and then a postconstitutional coalition game is played.  ...  This paper is the first part of a two parts essay aimed at giving a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meant as an extended model of corporate governance of  ...  on an ethical decision procedure employing fuzzy logic and default reasoning are worked out.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.731647 fatcat:grtbcb7dofa4hldefgapii7dcu

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a Model of 'Extended' Corporate Governance: An Explanation Based on the Economic Theories of Social Contract, Reputation and Reciprocal Conformism

Lorenzo Sacconi
2004 Social Science Research Network  
Yet vagueness can be governed by the logic of moral reasoning and the application of mo dern fuzzy logic.  ...  Ethics can be understood as a normative discipline which applies the rules of moral reasoning, or as a positive science which describes norms and social rules shared in the form of social conventions  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.514522 fatcat:mnzecdqi6fg2ng72js2b7iz5fm

Modeling Cognitive Social Capital and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as Preconditions for Sustainable Networks of Relations

Lorenzo Sacconi, Giacomo Degli Antoni
2011 Social Science Research Network  
In particular, (a) the level of cognitive SC, in terms of community or society-wide disposition to comply with fair social norms, plays a key role in providing opportunities for the firm to agree (with  ...  By joint use of the tools of network analysis and psychological game theory, the paper shows the role of cognitive SC and CSR in promoting the emergence of cooperative networks between the firm and all  ...  which define, albeit with a margin of vagueness, what has to be done under unforeseen contingencies (Sacconi 2000 (Sacconi , 2010a .  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1778102 fatcat:qzmj5uywzre2fmtama5fkctioy

Socially aware computing constructs

Andry Rakotonirainy, Patricia Obst, Seng W. Loke
2012 International Journal of Social and Humanistic Computing  
They also could be used in virtual communities modelling where the social awareness of a community as well as the process of joining and exiting a community are important.  ...  A detailed summary of social psychology theory relevant to social computing is given, followed by a formal definition of the process with each such norm advertised and acquired.  ...  Sacconi and Moretti (2008) described the role of social norms in the selection of equilibrium points under unforeseen contingencies.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijshc.2012.053162 fatcat:gkg62o4rpzcklizkg4jn7jx5wm

The Strategic Structure of Offer and Acceptance: Game Theory and the Law of Contract Formation

Avery Katz
1990 Michigan law review  
In such a context, individual maximization requires each party to select an optimal strategya complete plan of actions to be taken under all relevant contingencies.  ...  In many settings, social norms and ethical precepts provide well-defined and successful ways to divide the surplus from exchange and to reduce the social costs of strategic behavior. 25 Particular methods  ...  This is because a sale takes place under the common law if and only if (V -C) exceeds S + R.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1289373 fatcat:jcoea4y4ynfxdmirfzkuklzef4

Incomplete contracts and corporate ethics [chapter]

Lorenzo Sacconi
Legal Orderings and Economic Institutions  
There is a basic analogy between default reasoning and the rule given above for evaluating actions under unforeseen contingencies.  ...  It is then suggested a second tentative modelling of players' inferences in the terms of the logic of default reasoning (Reiter 1980 , Ginsberg 1987 .  ... 
doi:10.4324/9780203391327_chapter_16 fatcat:m7hoxq36lvepto4hpmbg2uhiyu
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