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A formal model of Algorand smart contracts [article]

Massimo Bartoletti and Andrea Bracciali and Cristian Lepore and Alceste Scalas and Roberto Zunino
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We develop a formal model of Algorand stateless smart contracts (stateless ASC1.)  ...  We exploit our model to prove fundamental properties of the Algorand blockchain, and to establish the security of some archetypal smart contracts.  ...  This paper presents: -a formal model of stateless ASC1 providing a solid theoretical foundation to Algorand smart contracts ( §2).  ... 
arXiv:2009.12140v3 fatcat:jbui2rqjjfbvpmtp5jjkyuxk7i

The Challenges of Existence, Status, and Value for Improving Blockchain

Fei Lin, Minqian Qiang
2019 IEEE Access  
Blockchain is defined as a distributed ledger technology that can implement financial models.  ...  More importantly, it analyzed the importance of scale out, which can be a key enabler to solve the main practical problems in constructing DVES.  ...  Formal verification is an effective way to audit smart contracts.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2888697 fatcat:wd6fwoejnvfsfamdzthpf2hi44

Efficient and DoS-resistant Consensus for Permissioned Blockchains [article]

Xusheng Chen, Shixiong Zhao, Ji Qi, Jianyu Jiang, Haoze Song, Cheng Wang, Tsz On Li, T.-H. Hubert Chan, Fengwei Zhang, Xiapu Luo, Sen Wang, Gong Zhang (+1 others)
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Existing permissioned blockchain systems designate a fixed and explicit group of committee nodes to run a consensus protocol that confirms the same sequence of blocks among all nodes.  ...  Although work proposes scalable BFT protocols that run on a larger number of committee nodes, their efficiency drops dramatically when only a small number of nodes are attacked.  ...  Ekiden [98] and ShadowEth [99] offload the execution of smart contracts to a small group of SGX powered computing nodes to avoid the redundant smart contract executions on all consensus nodes.  ... 
arXiv:1808.02252v4 fatcat:tmfa4sjcu5a43kk5msxmdn5leu

On the suitability of blockchain platforms for IoT applications: Architectures, security, privacy, and performance

Sotirios Brotsis, Konstantinos Limniotis, Gueltoum Bendiab, Nicholas Kolokotronis, Stavros Shiaeles
2021 Computer Networks  
of the IoT, using the smart home as the reference domain.  ...  If the underlying consensus protocols performance and fault tolerance is also considered, then only a small number of platforms meet the requirements of our reference IoT domain.  ...  In [1] , the authors based on a formal model checking language, proposed a novel way to model smart contracts, which was a way to model the users' behavior.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2021.108005 fatcat:35tosxqpxjawzilnxoco5u2b5q

Algorand

Yossi Gilad, Rotem Hemo, Silvio Micali, Georgios Vlachos, Nickolai Zeldovich
2017 Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles - SOSP '17  
Algorand is a new cryptocurrency system that can confirm transactions with latency on the order of a minute while scaling to many users [15] .  ...  Algorand uses a new Byzantine Agreement (BA) protocol to reach consensus among users on the next set of transactions.  ...  Introduction Cryptographic currencies such as Bitcoin can enable new applications, such as smart contracts [21, 41] and fair protocols [4] , can simplify currency conversions [12] , and can avoid trusted  ... 
doi:10.1145/3132747.3132757 dblp:conf/sosp/GiladHMVZ17 fatcat:dg2hak4vivfibddl6dp52ugmpy

Ethereum: State of Knowledge and Research Perspectives [chapter]

Sergei Tikhomirov
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
There are two types of accounts in Ethereum: externally owned accounts and contract accounts controlled by a private key or by a smart contract -a piece of code deployed on the blockchain -respectively  ...  Ethereum is a major blockchain-based platform for smart contracts -Turing complete programs that are executed in a decentralized network and usually manipulate digital units of value.  ...  develop a usable and formally verifiable high-level language reflecting this model.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-75650-9_14 fatcat:hypwhlvpzndmbllfqxytk4bj4y

A Generic Sharding Scheme for Blockchain Protocols [article]

Zuphit Fidelman
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This thesis introduces a formal general framework for scaling blockchain protocols by sharding. The framework is modular and it can be adjusted for different needs or sets of assumptions.  ...  The framework is not left as an obscure specification of some high level structure; explicit use is demonstrated by applying it to shard Algorand.  ...  Several other applications adopted this technology as well, most notably smart contracts [6] and supply chains [1, 12] .  ... 
arXiv:1909.01162v1 fatcat:2mmcycxvaja3fenknyj4ltnhki

Energy Footprint of Blockchain Consensus Mechanisms Beyond Proof-of-Work [article]

Moritz Platt, Johannes Sedlmeir, Daniel Platt, Paolo Tasca, Jiahua Xu, Nikhil Vadgama, Juan Ignacio Ibañez
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We approach this research question by formalizing a basic consumption model for PoS blockchains.  ...  In this paper, we take a first step towards comparing the energy requirements of such systems to understand whether they achieve this goal equally well.  ...  The applicability of this model to other permissioned systems should therefore be more formally analyzed. VII.  ... 
arXiv:2109.03667v5 fatcat:dhzmmvuxyvfhbmo6ww4qja5sjm

Prism: Scaling Bitcoin by 10,000x [article]

Lei Yang, Vivek Bagaria, Gerui Wang, Mohammad Alizadeh, David Tse, Giulia Fanti, Pramod Viswanath
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present an implementation of Prism which achieves a throughput of 70,000 transactions per second and confirmation latencies of tens of seconds.  ...  Prism is a new blockchain protocol which is designed to achieve a natural scaling of Bitcoin's performance while maintaining its full security guarantees.  ...  Our current implementation uses a UTXO-based scripting layer, and extending it to a more complex scripting layer for smart contracts is of interest.  ... 
arXiv:1909.11261v2 fatcat:jd3j7ccvzveotkvcwtbiw77opa

A Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains [article]

Ivan Homoliak, Sarad Venugopalan, Qingze Hum, Pawel Szalachowski
2019 arXiv   pre-print
To this end, we propose a security reference architecture based on models that demonstrate the stacked hierarchy of various threats (similar to the ISO/OSI hierarchy) as well as threat-risk assessment  ...  They are full-stack systems where security is a critical factor for their success. The main focus of this work is to systematize knowledge about security and privacy issues of blockchains.  ...  Smart Contracts Smart contracts, introduced to automate legal contracts [131] , now serve as a method for building decentralized applications on blockchains.  ... 
arXiv:1904.06898v1 fatcat:aa3p3x6dy5fidlodgy3ak5twru

Proof of Novelty

Daniel Severo
2019 Figshare  
We propose a design for securing novelty of archived content in distributed ledgers, called Proof of Novelty.  ...  We discuss the usage of this design to secure the novelty of full-motion videos and end with a proposal of future lines of research that can extend the systems capabilities.  ...  in the VIRTUAL DESIGN CHALLENGE FOR AUTHENTICATING AND PROTECTING FULL MO-TION VIDEOS, hosted by Patriot One Technologies Inc. in collaboration with the Blockchain research cluster at The University of  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.10324883.v1 fatcat:r5lde6gswvaw3aqnecezuhx35q

Untangling Blockchain: A Data Processing View of Blockchain Systems

Tien Tuan Anh Dinh, Rui Liu, Meihui Zhang, Gang Chen, Beng Chin Ooi, Ji Wang
2018 IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering  
We analyze both in-production and research systems in four dimensions: distributed ledger, cryptography, consensus protocol and smart contract.  ...  Blockchains are distributed ledgers that enable parties who do not fully trust each other to maintain a set of global states. The parties agree on the existence, values and histories of the states.  ...  Data model -IOHeavy We deployed the IOHeavy smart contract that performs a number of read and write operations of key-value tuples. We used 20-byte keys and 100-byte values.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tkde.2017.2781227 fatcat:7fedxsxy2jda7gz352iw2cyfzy

Blockchain's adoption in IoT: The challenges, and a way forward

Imran Makhdoom, Mehran Abolhasan, Haider Abbas, Wei Ni
2019 Journal of Network and Computer Applications  
The slocks/smart-devices are integrated with a blockchain-based smart contract hosted on a single or distributed blockchain servers, through embedded devices running a blockchain client software.  ...  As soon as the service is closed, a TX is initiated on the blockchain, and the client gets his balance money (Balance = Deposit -the cost of service) through smart contract.  ...  Smart Contracts.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2018.10.019 fatcat:g6ya7prv6bdzbagaqcai2b4boa

Untangling Blockchain: A Data Processing View of Blockchain Systems [article]

Tien Tuan Anh Dinh, Rui Liu, Meihui Zhang, Gang Chen, Beng Chin Ooi, Ji Wang
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We analyze both in-production and research systems in four dimensions: distributed ledger, cryptography, consensus protocol and smart contract.  ...  Blockchains are distributed ledgers that enable parties who do not fully trust each other to maintain a set of global states. The parties agree on the existence, values and histories of the states.  ...  Data model -IOHeavy We deployed the IOHeavy smart contract that performs a number of read and write operations of key-value tuples. We used 20-byte keys and 100-byte values.  ... 
arXiv:1708.05665v1 fatcat:tf3fuh2fxnbdjaxywuhc3qz6ra

Proof of Kernel Work: a democratic low-energy consensus for distributed access-control protocols

Leif-Nissen Lundbæk, Daniel Janes Beutel, Michael Huth, Stephen Jackson, Laurence Kirk, Robert Steiner
2018 Royal Society Open Science  
form a set of rules, that is encoded in a smart contract, and -a White List L, encoded in a smart contract.  ...  Formal verification has already been applied extensively in the area of access-control policies, and such validation could therefore also be done for smart contracts that embody such policies.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsos.180422 pmid:30225029 pmcid:PMC6124024 fatcat:c526tnmawjfezkva3s26wiix4u
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