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The contribution of the study of neurodegenerative disorders to the understanding of human memory

P.K. Panegyres
2004 QJM: Quarterly journal of medicine  
The investigation of human memory in neurodegenerative disorders suggests that the interaction of networks subserving episodic memory, semantic memory, and working memory contributes to higher level cognition  ...  Memory impairment is one of the most common complaints affecting patients with neurodegenerative disorders, and its investigation has provided insights into the function and properties of human memory.  ...  Semantic dementia, a form of lobar atrophy involving the temporal lobe neocortex, has relative sparing of the hippocampal complex, and such patients have selective impairment of semantic knowledge, which  ... 
doi:10.1093/qjmed/hch096 pmid:15317924 fatcat:agzrhmjp45amdpzuivau65dfea

Analyzing Knowledge Retrieval Impairments Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Using Network Analyses

Jeffrey C. Zemla, Joseph L. Austerweil
2019 Complexity  
These results suggest that the semantic memory impairment of Alzheimer's patients can be modeled through the inclusion of spurious associations between unrelated concepts in the semantic store.  ...  A defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is difficulty in retrieving semantic memories, or memories encoding facts and knowledge.  ...  Department of Energy's Office of Science. Support for this research was provided by NIH R21AG0534676 and the Office of the VCGRE at UW-Madison with funding from the WARF.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2019/4203158 pmid:31341377 pmcid:PMC6656530 fatcat:6cz2i3ifbnavhlo5i5azirsal4

The neurophysiological architecture of semantic dementia: spectral dynamic causal modelling of a neurodegenerative proteinopathy

Elia Benhamou, Charles R. Marshall, Lucy L. Russell, Chris J. D. Hardy, Rebecca L. Bond, Harri Sivasathiaseelan, Caroline V. Greaves, Karl J. Friston, Jonathan D. Rohrer, Jason D. Warren, Adeel Razi
2020 Scientific Reports  
the key elements of distributed neuronal processing that underwrite semantic memory.  ...  We assessed how the effective connectivity of the semantic appraisal network targeted by this disease was modulated by pathogenic protein deposition and by two key phenotypic factors, semantic impairment  ...  Work in SD-the principal 'lesion model' of human semantic memory-has corroborated this picture.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-020-72847-1 pmid:33004840 pmcid:PMC7530731 fatcat:od3fins6m5dtnealsqfoycvvxe

Evidence of multiple memory systems in the human brain

D. Perani, S. Bressi, S. F. Cappa, G. Vallar, M. Alberoni, F. Grassi, C. Caltagirone, L. Cipolotti, M. Franceschi, G. L. Lenzi, F. Fazio
1993 Brain  
These data are in agreement with 'neural network' models of the neural basis of cognition, according to which complex functions are subserved by multiple interconnected cortical and subcortical structures  ...  In the neuropsychological tests, both global amnesia and Alzheimer's disease patients had impaired episodic long-term memory, while deficits of short-term, semantic and implicit memory were present only  ...  best predictive model of memory impairment.  ... 
doi:10.1093/brain/116.4.903 pmid:8353715 fatcat:z7mqnurnkzffnd54t5pshpfn4i

Language in Schizophrenia Part 2: What Can Psycholinguistics Bring to the Study of Schizophrenia…and Vice Versa?

Gina R. Kuperberg
2010 Language and Linguistics Compass  
This article reviews a selection of psycholinguistic studies which suggest that sentence-level abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from a relative overdependence on semantic associative relationships  ...  memory and the other involving the use of combinatorial mechanisms to build propositional meaning.  ...  Patients' impairment in comprehending syntactically complex sentences correlates with their poor performance on a verbal working memory (WM) span task.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2010.00217.x pmid:20824153 pmcid:PMC2932455 fatcat:oxab2i4rbna57hdtx3ixdllvtm

Phonology and syntax in specific language impairment: Evidence from a connectionist model

Marc F Joanisse, Mark S Seidenberg
2003 Brain and Language  
Anaphoric resolution was represented in this model by recognizing the semantics of the correct antecedent when a bound pronoun was input.  ...  The model provides a causal demonstration of how a perceptual deficit could give rise to grammatical deficits in SLI.  ...  This theory is explored in-depth below, where we review the literature on phonology and working memory in sentence processing and then develop a model that explores the effects of a phonological impairment  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0093-934x(02)00533-3 pmid:12821414 fatcat:yfr7eofkzjf5pat37zi4ce37gm

A computational model of semantic memory impairment: Modality specificity and emergent category specificity

Martha J. Farah, James L. McClelland
1991 Journal of experimental psychology. General  
A parallel distributed processing model of semantic memory in which knowledge is subdivided by modality into visual and functional components is described.  ...  It is demonstrated how a modality-specific semantic memory system can account for categoryspecific impairments after brain damage.  ...  However, we have shown that a simple model of semantic memory with only modalityspecific components can account for all three types of category-specific semantic memory impairment that have been observed  ... 
doi:10.1037/0096-3445.120.4.339 fatcat:ry2pwlm4cvhe7ln6rlihimn7nm

A computational model of semantic memory impairment: Modality specificity and emergent category specificity

Martha J. Farah, James L. McClelland
1991 Journal of experimental psychology. General  
A parallel distributed processing model of semantic memory in which knowledge is subdivided by modality into visual and functional components is described.  ...  It is demonstrated how a modality-specific semantic memory system can account for categoryspecific impairments after brain damage.  ...  However, we have shown that a simple model of semantic memory with only modalityspecific components can account for all three types of category-specific semantic memory impairment that have been observed  ... 
doi:10.1037//0096-3445.120.4.339 pmid:1837294 fatcat:qehrgeeudrchjopsalwwkj3sw4

Role for memory capacity in sentence comprehension: Evidence from acute stroke

Corinne Pettigrew, Argye E. Hillis
2014 Aphasiology  
Furthermore, ischemia that included the short-term/working memory network was sufficient to cause sentence comprehension impairments for syntactically complex sentences.  ...  Aims-The present study examined the hypothesis that severity of short-term memory deficit due to acute stroke predicts the severity of impairment in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences  ...  One of the most broadly applied models describing limited-capacity retention and manipulation of information is Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model of working memory (see Baddeley, 2012 , for a recent  ... 
doi:10.1080/02687038.2014.919436 pmid:25221377 pmcid:PMC4158714 fatcat:vugpit2gjjbbrgg5aw74y5mkzy

The Pivotal Role of Semantic Memory in Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future

Muireann Irish, Olivier Piguet
2013 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience  
Episodic memory refers to a complex and multifaceted process which enables the retrieval of richly detailed evocative memories from the past.  ...  In contrast, semantic memory is conceptualized as the retrieval of general conceptual knowledge divested of a specific spatiotemporal context.  ...  Converging evidence now points to the role of large-scale neural networks in subtending complex cognitive processes, and the intriguing possibility that semantic processing may play a central role in all  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00027 pmid:23565081 pmcid:PMC3615221 fatcat:rpblobzgzrc27eqq5wmgvs7pyy

Brain and Language: Evidence for Neural Multifunctionality

Dalia Cahana-Amitay, Martin L. Albert
2014 Behavioural Neurology  
In this paper the term "neural multifunctionality" refers to incorporation of nonlinguistic functions into language models of the intact brain, reflecting a multifunctional perspective whereby a constant  ...  By way of example, we consider effects of executive system functions on aspects of semantic processing among persons with and without aphasia, as well as the interaction of executive and language functions  ...  Support for this research was provided by the National Institutes of Health, NIDCD Grant 5P30DC005207 (PI: Albert), Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center, NIA Grant 5R01AG14345 (PIs: Albert and Obler  ... 
doi:10.1155/2014/260381 pmid:25009368 pmcid:PMC4070396 fatcat:jiwo5rz2zjgw7jjy4xjuijt4pq

Relationship between cortical microinfarcts and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease

Benito P. Damasceno
2012 Dementia & Neuropsychologia  
stress and inflammation, particularly in the watershed areas of the tertiary association cortex, and hence could damage cognition networks and explain many of AD's cognitive and behavioral disturbances  ...  The main cause of cortical MIs is chronic cerebral hypoperfusion but occlusive vascular diseases, embolism and blood-brain barrier disruptions, isolated or combined, may also play a role.  ...  Even access to the meaning itself (semantic representation or semantic memory) entails a complex co-activation of all of the relevant features of the object (visual, smell, motion, how humans use it, etc  ... 
doi:10.1590/s1980-57642012dn06030004 pmid:29213786 pmcid:PMC5618959 fatcat:ocqtqqm5mvbjdnrik6n442azy4

Knowledge Representations Derived From Semantic Fluency Data

Jeffrey C. Zemla
2022 Frontiers in Psychology  
The semantic fluency task is commonly used as a measure of one's ability to retrieve semantic concepts.  ...  I provide an overview of this methodology, using Alzheimer's disease as a case study for how the approach can help advance theoretical questions about the nature of semantic representation.  ...  between different types of memory impairments.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.815860 pmid:35360609 pmcid:PMC8963473 fatcat:bezw6vo4tfcnzfsn4gxxc34ec4

Disorders of semantic memory

P Garrard, R Perry, J R Hodges
1997 Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry  
The idea of a degenerative process "pruning back the semantic tree" has an obvious intuitive appeal, but an alternative model, the distributed feature network, predicts the same phenomenon in a different  ...  A pattern of consistency over testing sessions, together with item specific failure on a range of tests, suggests semantic memory impairment.  ... 
doi:10.1136/jnnp.62.5.431 pmid:9153596 pmcid:PMC486839 fatcat:y3a5joqsszbmbo6lc5nwd2r74m

The Heterogeneity of Memory Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

Emmanuel Stip, Isabelle Lussier
1996 Canadian journal of psychiatry  
Method: The components of the human memory system are described, and then a review of the various memory deficits identified among patients suffering from schizophrenia is presented.  ...  Objective: To characterize the memory dysfunction of schizophrenic patients.  ...  author, from the Medical Research Council of Canada.  ... 
doi:10.1177/070674379604100703 pmid:8884047 fatcat:7sqjmymg5zbt5ccl3jvpot3pca
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