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Wormhole routing techniques for directly connected multicomputer systems

Prasant Mohapatra
1998 ACM Computing Surveys  
Next, the characteristics of the wormhole routing mechanism are described in detail along with the theory behind deadlock-free routing.  ...  We present a detailed survey of various techniques for enhancing the performance and reliability of wormhole-routing schemes in directly connected networks.  ...  The author is thankful to Katrina Avery for her editorial assistance, which improved the readability of the article. The author also thanks the referees for their valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/292469.292472 fatcat:awgtqfbqvjfmvfibgxf3aeqlay

A method to remove deadlocks in Networks-on-Chips with Wormhole flow control

Ciprian Seiculescu, Srinivasan Murali, Luca Benini, Giovanni De Micheli
2010 2010 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE 2010)  
With wormhole flow control and custom irregular NoC topologies, deadlocks can occur during system operation. Ensuring a deadlock free operation of custom NoCs is a major challenge.  ...  Our method can be applied to any NoC topology and routing function, and the potential deadlocks are removed by adding minimal number of virtual or physical channels.  ...  In [19] , a methodology to design adaptive deadlock free routing functions for application specific traffic patterns is presented.  ... 
doi:10.1109/date.2010.5457071 dblp:conf/date/SeiculescuMBM10 fatcat:jme7qpezq5bo5df7fc4hq7wxje

A universal proof technique for deadlock-free routing in interconnection networks

Loren Schwiebert, D. N. Jayasimha
1995 Proceedings of the seventh annual ACM symposium on Parallel algorithms and architectures - SPAA '95  
Our methodology is illustrated by proving deadlock freedom for a store-and-forward routing algorithm for meshes and a wormhole routing algorithm for hypercubes.  ...  An important open problem in interconnection network routing has been to characterize the conditions under which routing algorithms are deadlock-free.  ...  All these proof techniques provide only a sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive wormhole routing.  ... 
doi:10.1145/215399.215440 dblp:conf/spaa/SchwiebertJ95 fatcat:jtrtfcjwtndujpdxercjt3uag4

DBR: A Simple, Fast and Efficient Dynamic Network Reconfiguration Mechanism Based on Deadlock Recovery Scheme

Majed ValadBeigi
2012 International Journal of VLSI Design & Communication Systems  
The mechanism which is referred to as DBR guarantees a deadlock-free reconfiguration based on wormhole switching (WS) and it does not require additional resources.  ...  In this paper we present a simple, fast and efficient mechanism for dynamic network reconfiguration which is based on regressive deadlock recoveries instead of avoiding deadlocks.  ...  Our methods can be used for any topology with various routing algorithms. DBR guarantees a deadlock-free reconfiguration based on wormhole switching (WS) and it does not require additional resources.  ... 
doi:10.5121/vlsic.2012.3502 fatcat:g2dgdjpkunf7zkmxjrfim3u2xm

A new theory of deadlock-free adaptive routing in wormhole networks

J. Duato
1993 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  
This paper develops the theoretical background for the design of deadlock-free adaptive routing algorithms for wormhole networks.  ...  Second generation multicomputers use wormhole routing, allowing a very low channel setup time and drastically reducing the dependency between network latency and internode distance.  ...  Finally, in [11], we have proposed a very simple methodology to design deadlock-free adaptive routing algorithms for wormhole networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/71.250114 fatcat:kvon5bnij5b6nf7cavv3tvbtsu

A Comparison of Router Architectures for Virtual Cut-Through and Wormhole Switching in a NOW Environment

J. Duato, A. Robles, F. Silla, R. Beivide
2001 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing  
We also propose a fully adaptive routing algorithm for VCT switching in NOWs. Moreover, we show that VCT routers outperform wormhole routers in a NOW environment at a lower cost.  ...  Most commercial routers designed for networks of workstations (NOWs) implement wormhole switching. However, wormhole switching is not well suited for NOWs.  ...  Several deadlock-free routing algorithms [18, 2, 9, 16] and two general methodologies for the design of adaptive routing algorithms for irregular networks [21, 22] have been proposed.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jpdc.2000.1679 fatcat:2cq77nvohfcsbahyc2hj3dy6ya

Deadlock-free oblivious wormhole routing with cyclic dependencies

L. Schwiebert
2001 IEEE transactions on computers  
A great deal of work has been done recently on developing techniques for proving deadlock freedom for wormhole routing algorithms.  ...  Another contribution of this work is a first step toward a more formal model of unreachable cycles in wormhole-routed networks.  ...  Jayasimha for suggestions that have been incorporated into section 6. The author appreciates the detailed comments provided by the anonymous reviewers, which resulted in many improvements.  ... 
doi:10.1109/12.954503 fatcat:5tkynoxxzfhlzb4apsablrppza

Deadlock-free oblivious wormhole routing with cyclic dependencies

Loren Schwiebert
1997 Proceedings of the ninth annual ACM symposium on Parallel algorithms and architectures - SPAA '97  
A great deal of work has been done recently on developing techniques for proving deadlock freedom for wormhole routing algorithms.  ...  Another contribution of this work is a first step toward a more formal model of unreachable cycles in wormhole-routed networks.  ...  Jayasimha for suggestions that have been incorporated into section 6. The author appreciates the detailed comments provided by the anonymous reviewers, which resulted in many improvements.  ... 
doi:10.1145/258492.258507 dblp:conf/spaa/Schwiebert97 fatcat:j4hx3cqvxrfvrnkaoqss3ilrt4

A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Deadlock-Free Wormhole Routing

Loren Schwiebert, D.N. Jayasimha
1996 Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing  
An important open problem in wormhole routing has been to find a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing.  ...  In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition is proposed that can be used for any adaptive or nonadaptive routing algorithm for wormhole routing, as long as only local information is required for  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank José Duato for many helpful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jpdc.1996.0008 fatcat:zr24oyqmzjhdpnworwnx2q6ul4

An overview about Networks-on-Chip with multicast suppor [article]

Marcelo Daniel Berejuck
2016 arXiv   pre-print
For these SoC platforms, multicast communication is significantly used for parallel applications.  ...  Network-on-Chip (NoC) arises as a solution to interconnect these systems, which provides a scalable, reusable, and an efficient interconnect.  ...  Deadlock-Free Multicast Routing Algorithm for Wormhole-Switched Mesh NoC Authors [5] introduced a deadlock-free adaptation of the dual-path multicast algorithm originally proposed by [8] for multicomputer  ... 
arXiv:1610.00751v1 fatcat:rysfjplkcndtho2d4wa7664hwq

Reconfigurable Wormhole Networks: A Realistic Approach [chapter]

José L. Sánchez, José M. Garcia, Francisco J. Alfaro
1998 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We h a ve also studied the deadlock problem in recon gurable interconnection networks and we detail the solution adopted in our approach.  ...  In order to avoid this problem, many alternatives have been proposed in the literature, mainly adaptive routing, random routing and dynamic network recon guration.  ...  Because we h a ve a recon gurable network, we cannot guaranty the absence of these situations even if a deadlock-free routing algorithm for static networks is being used.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-64359-1_717 fatcat:42dzdy6qsbgifikiwouztt3pdi

Worm-Bubble Flow Control

Lizhong Chen, T. M. Pinkston
2013 2013 IEEE 19th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA)  
Moreover, any wormhole-switched topology with embedded rings can use WBFC to avoid deadlock within each ring.  ...  Deadlock-free flow control should be designed with minimal cost, particularly for on-chip designs where area and power resources are greatly constrained.  ...  Acknowledgements We sincerely thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpca.2013.6522333 dblp:conf/hpca/ChenP13 fatcat:zotvjad3kfhyvpkl7ulcxd7dze

Performance Modelling of Necklace Hypercubes

S. Meraji, H. Sarbazi-Azad, A. Patooghy
2007 2007 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium  
The analysis focuses on a fully adaptive routing algorithm which has been shown to be the most effective for necklace hypercube networks.  ...  This paper proposes an analytical performance model to predict message latency in wormhole-switched necklace hypercube interconnection networks with fully adaptive routing.  ...  According to Duato's methodology, since the base deadlock-free routing algorithm requires 2 virtual channels, we can have a fully adaptive deadlock-free routing algorithm in the necklace hypercube using  ... 
doi:10.1109/ipdps.2007.370594 dblp:conf/ipps/MerajiSP07 fatcat:iqur3bkbjjcetn5ynparbunebi

Communication Bandwidth Adaptable Network Design of Complex Application Specific SoC

Naveen Choudhary, M. S. Gaur, V. Laxmi
2011 International Journal of Computer Applications  
The proposed methodology exploits a priori knowledge of the application's communication attributes to generate an optimized network and associated routing tables to enable sufficient number of deadlock  ...  In the proposed methodology the network is generated according to the requisite deadlock free paths having appropriate distribution of communication traffic.  ...  All the routes generated through the presented methodology are kept deadlock free.  ... 
doi:10.5120/3624-5060 fatcat:hzown2eupjbjzicu5anq3gpsaa

A Tool for Automatic Detection of Deadlock in Wormhole Networks on Chip

Sami Taktak, Emmanuelle Encrenaz, Jean-lou Desbarbieux
2006 High Level Design Validation and Test Workshop (HLDVT), IEEE International  
We present an extension of Duato's necessary and sufficient condition a routing function must satisfy in order to be deadlock-free, to support environment constraints inducing extra-dependencies between  ...  A prototype tool has been developed and automatic deadlock checking of large scale networks with various routing functions have been successfully achieved.  ...  Fleury and Fraigniaud [1998] proposed a general theory for the study of routing in wormhole-routed networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hldvt.2006.319992 dblp:conf/hldvt/TaktakED06 fatcat:jw6triag7fdqba2gwjxhgia35y
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