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A Practical Architecture for an Anycast CDN

Hussein A. Alzoubi, Seungjoon Lee, Michael Rabinovich, Oliver Spatscheck, Jacobus Van Der Merwe
2011 ACM Transactions on the Web  
In this article we re-evaluate IP Anycast for CDNs by proposing a load-aware IP Anycast CDN architecture.  ...  However, while briefly considered as an enabler for content delivery networks (CDNs) when they first emerged, IP Anycast was deemed infeasible in that environment.  ...  Furthermore, even A Practical Architecture for an Anycast CDN 17:11 for the overloaded servers, we try to retain the current mappings as much as possible.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2019643.2019644 fatcat:3ejaxchzvnf6vagen546tm4hpi

Anycast CDNS revisited

Hussein A. Alzoubi, Seungjoon Lee, Michael Rabinovich, Oliver Spatscheck, Jacobus Van der Merwe
2008 Proceeding of the 17th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '08  
Anycast CDN architecture that addresses these concerns while benefiting from inherent IP Anycast features.  ...  While briefly considered as an enabler when content distribution networks (CDNs) first emerged, the use of IP Anycast was deemed infeasible in that environment.  ...  We thank the reviewers for their valuable feedback. The work on this project by Alzoubi and Rabinovich is supported in part by the NSF Grant CNS-0615190.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1367497.1367536 dblp:conf/www/AlzoubiLRSM08 fatcat:onzpzuie2zhhnjdtt7riztoube

Anycast-aware transport for content delivery networks

Zakaria Al-Qudah, Seungjoon Lee, Michael Rabinovich, Oliver Spatscheck, Jacobus Van der Merwe
2009 Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World wide web - WWW '09  
However, because routing changes can result in a change of the endpoint that terminates the TCP session, TCP session disruption remains a concern for anycast CDNs, especially for large file downloads.  ...  Anycast-based content delivery networks (CDNs) have many properties that make them ideal for the large scale distribution of content on the Internet.  ...  IP anycast is a promising alternative request distribution mechanism; it was initially considered for CDNs and dismissed, but recently re-emerged as a practical approach for single-network CDNs [6] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/1526709.1526750 dblp:conf/www/Al-QudahLRSM09 fatcat:567lowu2tzdtxdfczsmlccv45y

Analyzing the Performance of an Anycast CDN

Matt Calder, Ashley Flavel, Ethan Katz-Bassett, Ratul Mahajan, Jitendra Padhye
2015 Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Internet Measurement Conference - IMC '15  
Whereas DNS-based redirection requires a complex global traffic manager, anycast depends on BGP to direct a client to a CDN front-end.  ...  We examine the performance implications of using anycast in a global, latency-sensitive, CDN.  ...  Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge Nick Holt and Daniel Gicklhorn for their support of this work. Matt Calder and Ethan Katz-Bassett were partially supported by the U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2815675.2815717 dblp:conf/imc/CalderFKMP15 fatcat:d6zdlei46ja7lm67sibw5ayyly

A First Look at Anycast CDN Traffic [article]

Danilo Cicalese, Danilo Giordano, Alessandro Finamore, Marco Mellia, Maurizio Munafò, Dario Rossi, Diana Joumblatt
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Anycast routing is an IP solution that allows packets to be routed to the topologically nearest server.  ...  For instance, since anycast depends on the routing, the question is how stable are the paths toward the nearest server.  ...  This testifies that today anycast is not anymore used for UDP services only, and A-CDNs are a reality.  ... 
arXiv:1505.00946v3 fatcat:rh3vgikpnba4fifnw6kw66tfye

Distributed Load Management Algorithms in Anycast-based CDNs [article]

Abhishek Sinha, Pradeepkumar Mani, Jie Liu, Ashley Flavel, Dave Maltz
2016 arXiv   pre-print
A popular architecture for modern Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) for geo-replicated services consists of multiple layers of proxy nodes for service and co-located DNS-servers for load-balancing among  ...  In the second half of the paper, we consider an alternative greedy load-management heuristic, currently in production in a major commercial CDN.  ...  In this architecture, the proxies are logically arranged in layers of anycast rings, with each layer having a distinct Anycast IP-address. See Figure 3 for an example.  ... 
arXiv:1603.00406v1 fatcat:pdfbkh6xdrguxpb677soivkx2m

A Walk through Content Delivery Networks [chapter]

Novella Bartolini, Emiliano Casalicchio, Salvatore Tucci
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper focuses on the main research areas in the field of CDN, pointing out the motivations, and analyzing the existing strategies for replica placement and management, server measurement, best fit  ...  Content Delivery Networks (CDN) aim at overcoming the inherent limitations of the Internet.  ...  The base principle is that a group of servers providing the same service can be addressed using an anycast name and an anycast address [38, 14] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24663-3_1 fatcat:qlmdig7nofafnbexq74jpgcdtm

Distributed Load Management in Anycast-based CDNs [article]

Abhishek Sinha, Pradeepkumar Mani, Jie Liu, Ashley Flavel, David A. Maltz
2015 arXiv   pre-print
A popular architecture for modern Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) for geo-replicated HTTP-services consists of multiple layers of proxy nodes for service and co-located DNS-servers for load-balancing  ...  In the second half of the paper, we consider an alternative greedy load-management heuristic, currently in production in a major commercial CDN.  ...  Anycast is a relatively new paradigm for CDN-management and there are already several commercial CDN in place today using anycast [1] , [2] , [3] .  ... 
arXiv:1509.08194v1 fatcat:zk33rxhoongbpaq5nbnybo5lne

Distributed load management in anycast-based CDNs

Abhishek Sinha, Pradeepkumar Mani, Jie Liu, Ashley Flavel, David A. Maltz
2015 2015 53rd Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton)  
A popular architecture for modern Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) for georeplicated HTTP-services consists of multiple layers of proxy nodes for service and co-located DNS-servers for load-balancing  ...  In the second half of the paper, we consider an alternative greedy load-management heuristic, currently in production in a major commercial CDN.  ...  Anycast is a relatively new paradigm for CDN-management and there are already several commercial CDN in place today using anycast [1] , [2] , [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/allerton.2015.7446988 dblp:conf/allerton/SinhaMLFM15 fatcat:azp4kcrjwvb7jjbb5jksotgqne

CDN: Content Distribution Network [article]

Gang Peng
2004 arXiv   pre-print
An example of CDN is described to show how a real commercial CDN operates.  ...  After this, we present a scheme that provides fast service location for peer-to-peer systems, a special type of CDN with no infrastructure support. We conclude with a brief projection about CDN.  ...  Thereby, they are very difficult to apply in practice [RGE01] and may not be suitable for the real CDN systems.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0411069v1 fatcat:mo3psojvhvcovk2lwwyuas2sey

Latency-Based Anycast Geolocation: Algorithms, Software, and Data Sets

Danilo Cicalese, Diana Zeaiter Joumblatt, Dario Rossi, Marc-Olivier Buob, Jordan Auge, Timur Friedman
2016 IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications  
With this paper, we not only propose and thoroughly validate a protocol-agnostic technique for anycast replicas discovery and geolocation, but also provide the community with open source software and datasets  ...  The algorithm features an iterative workflow, pipelining enumeration (an optimization problem using latency as input) and geolocalization (a classification problem using side channel information such as  ...  Indeed, given that no a priori information on the service running on an anycast host can be assumed, soliciting response on specific transport layer ports (e.g., UDP 53 for DNS or TCP 80 for CDN) would  ... 
doi:10.1109/jsac.2016.2558898 fatcat:5yvgbwegord6daink7ev36bote

Global-Scale Anycast Network Management with Verfploeter

Wouter B. de Vries, Salman Aljammaz, Roland van Rijswijk-Deij
2020 NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium  
Yet managing an anycast network is far from simple. Earlier work studying a DDoS attack on the DNS root system, for example, shows that even highly distributed anycast networks can be overwhelmed.  ...  These case studies show that Verfploeter is highly suitable for such a large-scale operation and gives operators vital insights that allow them to improve network management practices of their anycast  ...  These finds strengthen the case for a system that is able to perform fast and precise measurements of anycast catchments. Past work has also focused specifically on anycast performance in CDNs.  ... 
doi:10.1109/noms47738.2020.9110449 dblp:conf/noms/VriesAR20 fatcat:zuhbc5yrbbayphcg5liyaqbv2a

QoS Dynamic Routing in Content Delivery Networks [chapter]

Krzysztof Walkowiak
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Therefore, we analyze in this paper a network processing two kinds of demands: content demands to CDN servers and standard unicast demands.  ...  Since MPLS defines effective mechanism for traffic engineering, we assume that the CDN is located in MPLS network.  ...  We call such a network CDN-enabled MPLS network. However, also other architectures can be used for provision of QoS and TE capabilities in CDN. For more details refer to [4] , [18] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/11422778_90 fatcat:b4ayywctubg3rfai7w7tiqxt4m

An Overview of Cloud Based Content Delivery Networks: Research Dimensions and State-of-the-Art [chapter]

Meisong Wang, Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Rajiv Ranjan, Karan Mitra, Miranda Zhang, Eddie Li, Samee Khan, Mukkaddim Pathan, Dimitrios Georgeakopoulos
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this regard, we present an overview of cloud-based CDN followed by a detailed discussion on open challenges and research dimensions.  ...  Though CDNs and CCDNs share similar functionalities, introduction of cloud impose additional challenges that have to be addressed for a successful CCDN deployment.  ...  CDNs may use anycast for routing user request to their distribution centres or DNS.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46703-9_6 fatcat:xnkkbfdj35gklkcrdwdpatda2a

Anycasting in connection-oriented computer networks: Models, algorithms and results

Krzysztof Walkowiak
2010 International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science  
We formulate a model of anycast connections and next propose a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrangean relaxation aimed to optimize jointly routes for anycast and unicast connections.  ...  Examples of network techniques that apply anycasting are Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), Domain Name Service (DNS), Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems.  ...  Acknowledgment This work has been supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under a grant for the years 2008-2011.  ... 
doi:10.2478/v10006-010-0015-5 fatcat:ne67ykt3wfhxrplwa3rnfuu7rm
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