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### A Personal View of the P versus NP Problem [chapter]

Lance Fortnow
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
I recently completed a general audience book on the P versus NP problem [1] . Writing the book has forced me to step back and take a fresh look at the question from a non-technical point of view.  ...  There are really two different P versus NP problems.  ...  I recently completed a general audience book on the P versus NP problem [1] . Writing the book has forced me to step back and take a fresh look at the question from a non-technical point of view.  ...

### What is NP? - Interpretation of a Chinese paradox "white horse is not horse" [article]

Yu Li
2015 arXiv   pre-print
The notion of nondeterminism has disappeared from the current definition of NP, which has led to ambiguities in understanding NP, and caused fundamental difficulties in studying the relation P versus NP  ...  In this paper, we question the equivalence of the two definitions of NP, the one defining NP as the class of problems solvable by a nondeterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, and the other defining  ...  It is also the fruit of the exchange with my colleagues.  ...

### Comprehensive P vs NP -- Or, P as she is NP; the new guide of the conversion in polynomial-time and exponential-time

Nicholas R. Wright
2018 Figshare
We use the whole order approach to solve the problem of P versus NP. The relation of the whole order within a beautiful order is imperative to understanding the total order.  ...  We conclude with a demonstration of the halting problem.  ...  Feasibility Thesis P versus NP is concerned with the 'feasibility thesis' is the polynomial-time analog of the Church-Turing thesis. We approach this as a deal problem, not a decision problem.  ...

### The status of the P versus NP problem

Lance Fortnow
2009 Communications of the ACM
Josh Grochow wrote an early draft of Section 9. The anonymous referees provided critical advice. Some of the material in this article has appeared in my earlier surveys and my blog [14] .  ...  WHAT IF P = NP? To understand the importance of the P versus NP problem let us imagine a world where P = NP.  ...  FURTHER READING Recommendations for a more in-depth look at the P versus NP problem and the other topics discussed in this article: • Steve Homer and myself have written a detailed historical view of computational  ...

### Psychopathic and Nonpsychopathic Violent Offenders on the Rorschach: Discriminative Features and Comparisons With Schizophrenic Inpatient and University Student Samples

Ellen Hartmann, Peder Bryhn Nørbech, Cato Grønnerød
2006 Journal of Personality Assessment
The findings support the view that psychopathy is a distinctive form of antisocial personality disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) organized  ...  Logistic regression analyses revealed that AgPast accumulated incrementally in the classification of P-VO versus NP-VO, and AgC accumulated incrementally in the classification of VO versus IS when entered  ...  Findings from this study were presented by Ellen Hartmann at the 7th ERA Congress in Stockholm, Sweden in 2004, and at the SPA annual meeting in Chicago in 2005. We thank Stål Bjørkly and Stine E.  ...

### Credimus [article]

Edith Hemaspaandra, Lane A. Hemaspaandra
2019 arXiv   pre-print
complexity theorists view the world.  ...  This article, written by two complexity theorists who also work in computational social choice theory, focuses on one direction of that process by presenting a brief overview of how most computational  ...  For example, in the most recent P versus NP poll [Gas12] , only 53% percent of those polled felt that P versus NP would be resolved by the year 2100.  ...

### 3D combinational curves for accuracy and performance analysis of positive biometrics identification

Yingzi Du, Chein-I. Chang
2008 Optics and lasers in engineering
The 3D combinational accuracy curve gives a balanced view of the relationships among FAR (false alarm rate), FRR (false rejection rate), threshold t, and Cost.  ...  The 3D combinational performance curve can be derived from the 3D combinational accuracy curve which can give a balanced view among Security, Convenience, threshold t, and Cost.  ...  Acknowledgments The research in this paper uses ICE database provided by NIST [15]. The authors would like to thank Craig Belcher for his help in editing this paper.  ...

### Cyclosporine A-nanoparticles enhance the therapeutic benefit of adipose tissue- derived stem cell transplantation in a swine myocardial infarction model

Qiaoxiang Yin, Zhiyong Pei, Yunsheng Zhao, Heng Wang
2013 International Journal of Nanomedicine
We also thank the anonymous reviewers for critical reading and discussions of the manuscript. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.  ...  The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.  ...  Notes: Baseline versus endpoint, baseline endpoiont. *P,0.05 versus control; **P,0.01 versus control; # P,0.05 versus csa-NP; ^P,0.05 versus ascs; asc; a P,0.01 baseline versus endpoint.  ...

### Weak Arithmetics

J.-P. Ressayre
2001 Theoretical Computer Science
boundaries of Solvability with the help of computer experiments and results as well as conjectures from Number theory, 2. developing solvable versions of the "P versus NP" issues, to get around the present  ...  unsolvability of these problems, 3. reclaiming over the Unsolvable a friendly environment for the working Mathematician, Computer Scientist or Engineer -through the discovery of good extensions of Monadic  ...  From weak versions of "P versus NP", to the main issues themselves.  ...

### Some Estimated Likelihoods for Computational Complexity [chapter]

R. Ryan Williams
2019 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
The editors of this LNCS volume asked me to speculate on open problems: out of the prominent conjectures in computational complexity, which of them might be true, and why?  ...  I hope the reader is entertained.  ...  But I do only give 80% likelihood of P = NP being true. Why only 80%? Because the more I think about P versus NP, the less I understand about it, so why should I be so confident in its answer?  ...

### Tense over time: testing the Agreement/Tense Omission Model as an account of the pattern of tense-marking provision in early child English

JULIAN M. PINE, GINA CONTI-RAMSDEN, KATE L. JOSEPH, ELENA V. M. LIEVEN, LUDOVICA SERRATRICE
2008 Journal of Child Language
The aim of the present study was to test this prediction by examining provision rates for third person singular present tense and first and third person singular forms of copula BE and auxiliary BE in  ...  A B S T R A C T The Agreement/Tense Omission Model (ATOM) predicts that English-speaking children will show similar patterns of provision across different tense-marking morphemes (Rice, Wexler & Hershberger  ...  was a pronoun or a lexical NP.  ...

### Remarks on AKS Primality Testing Algorithm and A Flaw in the Definition of P [article]

Zhengjun Cao, Lihua Liu
2014 arXiv   pre-print
The flaw makes some deterministic polynomial time algorithms impractical, and humbles the importance of P=NP question.  ...  The complexity class P which contains all decision problems that can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine using a polynomial amount of computation time, is generally believed to be "easy".  ...  Here is a good collection of papers or works that try to settle the "P versus NP" question http://www.win.tue.nl/~gwoegi/P-versus-NP.htm Amusingly, the gap between approval and disapproval is negligible  ...

### THE GUIDE TO NP-COMPLETENESS IS 40 YEARS OLD: AN HOMAGE TO DAVID S. JOHNSON

Luciana S. Buriol, Celina Figueiredo, Mauricio G. C. Resende, Eduardo Uchoa
2020 Pesquisa Operacional
Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, by Michael R. Garey and David S. Johnson, was published 40 years ago (1979).  ...  The book was written in the late 1970s, when problems solvable in polynomial time were linked to the concepts of efficiently solvable and tractability, and the complexity class NP was defined to capture  ...  Moreover, Johnson had many other qualities, and was a very kind and sensible person. The last section of this paper shares a personal view of David S. Johnson.  ...

### Testing Fisher, Neyman, Pearson, and Bayes

Ronald Christensen
2005 American Statistician
This article presents a simple example that illustrates the key differences and similarities between the Fisherian, Neyman-Pearson, and Bayesian approaches to testing.  ...  A test of H 0 : θ = 0 versus H A : θ = 2 is typically different from a test of H 0 : θ = 2 versus H A : θ = 0. We examine the test of H 0 : θ = 0 versus H A : θ = 2.  ...  SIMPLE VERSUS SIMPLE Consider testing the simple null hypothesis H 0 : θ = 0 versus the simple alternative hypothesis H A : θ = 2. This now appears to be a decision problem.  ...

### Some Unresolved Issues in the Era of Biopsychosocial Nursing

Hildegard E. Peplau
1995 Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Mental illness of an individual is a family problem.  ...  A plan of treatment must be made and include psychiatric and medical problems, as well as the im- pact of one on the other.  ...
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