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A NAT Traversal Mechanism for Peer-To-Peer Networks

Arno Wacker, Gregor Schiele, Sebastian Holzapfel, Torben Weis
2008 2008 Eighth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing  
Using this protocol we determine the used NAT types for the hosts and select a suitable NAT traversal technique dynamically. tiating the communication is behind a FC type and the contacted peer uses one  ...  To initiate a communication, peer A sends a message to peer B. Since there is no corresponding mapping in the NAT table used by B's router, this message is dropped.  ...  NAT Traversal A NAT-based system consists of a number of hosts in a local network and a NAT-based router that connects this network to the Internet.  ... 
doi:10.1109/p2p.2008.29 dblp:conf/p2p/WackerSHW08 fatcat:rgkug5twonab7grg7ekksvwrcq

NAT Traversal Techniques: A Survey

Farida Chowdhury
2020 International Journal of Computer Applications  
For each technique, their mechanisms, strengths and limitations are explored.  ...  Since its inception, it has achieved a wide-scale adoption worldwide. Unfortunately, it imposes a great obstacle with respect to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications.  ...  The mechanism of Peer-to-Peer NAT [6] is similar to STUNT#2. In Peer-to-Peer NAT, both peers send SYN packets and listen for any incoming connections to the same port at the same time.  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2020920885 fatcat:ausaxpmfhfaa3fho5boivx7d6a

NTALG - TCP NAT traversal with application-level gateways

Matthaus Wander, Sebastian Holzapfel, Arno Wacker, Torben Weis
2012 2012 IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC)  
Existing solutions for NAT traversal can remedy the restrictions, but still there is a fraction of home users which lack support of it, especially when it comes to TCP.  ...  Consumer computers or home communication devices are usually connected to the Internet via a Network Address Translation (NAT) router.  ...  INTRODUCTION Network Address Translation (NAT) works well for outbound connections for client-server applications, but it hinders inbound connections for peer-to-peer or voice-over-ip applications.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ccnc.2012.6181044 dblp:conf/ccnc/WanderHWW12 fatcat:iuqsb56sx5bzrg5eiagfuhkebm

A survey on peer-to-peer SIP based communication systems

Xianghan Zheng, Vladimir Oleshchuk
2010 Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications  
In this paradigm, P2P network stores most of the network information on each participating peer without help of the central servers.  ...  We consider technical issues that include Chord overlay topology, P2PSIP session initiation (including enrollment and bootstrap, NAT traversal, message routing, P2PSIP interworking, P2PSIP Client, etc)  ...  Since many devices are behind the protection of NAT, the designed peer protocol SHOULD provide efficient NAT traversal mechanisms. 6. P2PSIP Client.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12083-009-0064-4 fatcat:4owb7cctfner3asp2ew4yg2xg4

IP2P: a peer-to-peer system for mobile devices

Chien-Chun Huang-Fu, Yi-Bing Lin, H. Rao
2009 IEEE wireless communications  
To resolve the NAT traversing issue for TCP, iP2P must adopt a NAT traversal mechanism [6] [7] [8] to establish the P2P connection.  ...  UPnP can be integrated easily with iP2P to support NAT traversal for the peers in different private IP networks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mwc.2009.4907557 fatcat:jsi2yu6zzbbrzks2ebx3gzuske

Peer-to-peer multimedia applications

Jin Li
2006 Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM international conference on Multimedia - MULTIMEDIA '06  
We then investigate a number of tools for building P2P multimedia applications, such as the overlay network, the scheduling algorithm, the erasure resilient coding, and NAT/firewall traversal.  ...  Therefore, as the demand of a peer-to-peer system grows, the capacity of the network grows, too. This enables a peer-to-peer multimedia application to be cheap to build and superb in scalability.  ...  NAT/Firewall traversal In a computing network, a NAT stands for network address translator, and a firewall is a piece of hardware or software that prevents communications forbidden by certain security  ... 
doi:10.1145/1180639.1180641 dblp:conf/mm/Li06 fatcat:hwcpx2jotbabtgbrkccsdr4k5a

NAT-Compatibility Testbed: An Environment to Automatically Verify Direct Connection Rate

Cheng-Yuan Ho, Fu-Yu Wang, Chien-Chao Tseng, Ying-Dar Lin
2011 IEEE Communications Letters  
The NAT-compatibility testbed is constructed with 4 components: two peers, an automatic execution mechanism, NAT devices, and signaling/intermediate servers such as STUN, TURN, and SIP.  ...  In this article, an NAT-compatibility testbed is designed to automatically conduct the repeated experiments, collect the test results, and verify the direct connection rate (DCR) of any NAT traversal programs  ...  On the other hand, when one peer is behind a symmetric NAT and the other peer is behind a port restricted or symmetric NAT, it is not easy for the two peers to establish a direct connection [9] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/lcomm.2010.102810.101700 fatcat:vua653mdpjfbtblyzdtde3rpli

A New Protocol to Determine the NAT Characteristics of a Host

Sebastian Holzapfel, Matthaus Wander, Arno Wacker, Lorenz Schwittmann, Torben Weis
2011 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing Workshops and Phd Forum  
For many applications, which need inbound connections, like e.g. voice-over-IP or peer-to-peer-based systems it is necessary to determine the characteristics of the surrounding network environment, i.e  ...  Furthermore, our protocol can be used in a fully decentralized way, i.e. without any centralized servers, making it suitable for pure peer-to-peer-based systems.  ...  Therefore, so-called NAT traversal mechanisms are required to allow inbound connections for such services. Several mechanisms for NAT traversal have been proposed in the literature, e.g.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ipdps.2011.320 dblp:conf/ipps/HolzapfelWWSW11 fatcat:jtmm23jhnbab3npqy45isjiyba

Peer NAT proxies for peer-to-peer games

Daryl Seah, Wai Kay Leong, Qingwei Yang, Ben Leong, Ali Razeen
2009 2009 8th Annual Workshop on Network and Systems Support for Games (NetGames)  
Network Address Translators (NAT) are ubiquitous on the Internet and any peer-to-peer (p2p) game will almost certainly need to perform NAT traversal through such devices.  ...  We demonstrate with an implementation and a measurement study that using peers as NAT proxies is feasible for both UDP and TCP connections.  ...  To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive study on the use of peers as proxies for NAT traversal.  ... 
doi:10.1109/netgames.2009.5446233 dblp:conf/netgames/SeahLYLR09 fatcat:dv4rs7eccvblthi3pzixqbmtrq

Private Virtual Cluster: Infrastructure and Protocol for Instant Grids [chapter]

Ala Rezmerita, Tangui Morlier, Vincent Neri, Franck Cappello
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Three main requirements should be fulfilled to make Instant Grids realistic: 1) simple networking configuration (Firewall and NAT), 2) no degradation of resource security and 3) no need to re-implement  ...  To demonstrate its properties, we have connected with PVC a set of firewall-protected PCs and conducted experiments to evaluate the networking performance and the capability to execute unmodified MPI applications  ...  Standard (UPnP) and original mechanisms (Traversing-TCP, TCP Hole Punching) may be used to establish direct connection between peers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11823285_41 fatcat:5bpxh4mjmzfpzfxglfdvhdjmdi

How NAT-compatible are VoIP applications?

Ying-Dar Lin, Chien-Chao Tseng, Cheng-Yuan Ho, Yu-Hsien Wu
2010 IEEE Communications Magazine  
Thus, how to let an EN or IN communicate with an IN (i.e., the NAT traversal mechanism) is important and necessary in today's Internet [2, 3] .  ...  Will current NAT traversal technologies not work because of network environment changes? Could VoIP peers behind different NAT devices use direct peer-to-peer connections?  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcom.2010.5673073 fatcat:zicaa77nbremziygigdrf3sb6i

Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks [article]

David Isaac Wolinsky, Pierre St. Juste, P. Oscar Boykin, Renato Figueiredo
2010 arXiv   pre-print
In order to support bootstrapping, a public overlay must support the following requirements: a method for reflection in order to obtain publicly reachable addresses, so peers behind network address translators  ...  The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems.  ...  So long as one peer is behind a cone NAT, NAT traversal using this mechanism is possible.  ... 
arXiv:1004.2308v1 fatcat:hokdtu6c2rdg5akcf2icobhbr4

Challenge and solutions of NAT traversal for ubiquitous and pervasive applications on the Internet

Yaw-Chung Chen, Wen-Kang Jia
2009 Journal of Systems and Software  
In this article, we discuss the essence of NAT sensitive applications as well as the challenge and response for various NAT traversal solutions.  ...  All questions pointed to redesign a new NAT framework with a major change to accommodate NAT problems all at once.  ...  Acknowledgement We would like to thank the ROC National Science Council for the grant numbered NSC 96-2752-E-009-006-PAE.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.078 fatcat:ylpambjz2nhldgvgz6jd6hzfti

A Self-Configuring Communication Virtual Machine

S. Masoud Sadjadi, Selim Kalayci, Yi Deng
2008 2008 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control  
Within CVM framework, we came across a practical issue, which is actually the case for any endto-end multimedia communication, namely the NAT-traversal (network address translation) problem that limits  ...  In this paper, we explain about the necessity of self-configuration for the NAT-traversal problem in end-to-end communications, and propose a solution within the core CVM framework.  ...  Then, we need to incorporate this information within a mechanism to be run by peers collaboratively.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icnsc.2008.4525314 dblp:conf/icnsc/SadjadiKD08 fatcat:zu6l5rk6ivdebih7jsahofvr7e

A New State-Based Connectivity Model for Peer-to-Peer Networks

2016 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
In this study, a new state-based end-to-end communication technique (SBN) for NAT traversal was designed and realized.  ...  These methods seem more attractive than other NAT traversal mechanisms since they are independent from internet infrastructure and are also appropriate for dynamic structures.  ...  Virtual private network, tunnel: Among the private networks to enable peer-to-peer communication, this method is one that uses a tunnel server.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.2015edp7220 fatcat:jbkvaez7yvg5taugldb3zizzqy
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