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Overview of candidate device technologies for storage-class memory

G. W. Burr, B. N. Kurdi, J. C. Scott, C. H. Lam, K. Gopalakrishnan, R. S. Shenoy
2008 IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Storage-class memory (SCM) combines the benefits of a solidstate memory, such as high performance and robustness, with the archival capabilities and low cost of conventional hard-disk magnetic storage.  ...  Such a device would require a solid-state nonvolatile memory technology that could be manufactured at an extremely high effective areal density using some combination of sublithographic patterning techniques  ...  achieved to date, and their prospects for scalability, fast readout, fast writing, low switching power, high endurance, and MLC operation (BJT: bipolar junction transistor).  ... 
doi:10.1147/rd.524.0449 fatcat:4wnf6cphxfgonisajdb4bghhxm

Radiation Effects in Advanced and Emerging Nonvolatile Memories

Matthew J. Marinella
2021 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
Despite hitting major roadblocks in 2-D scaling, NAND flash continues to scale in the vertical direction and dominate the commercial nonvolatile memory market.  ...  This review discusses the material and device physics, fabrication, operational principles, and commercial status of scaled 2-D flash, 3-D flash, and emerging memory technologies.  ...  Due to the low power and high speed, there is interest in using STT-MRAM as an embedded cache memory [67] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tns.2021.3074139 fatcat:sosgjpsninerbkkaocswmutakm

Phase Change and Magnetic Memories for Solid-State Drive Applications

Cristian Zambelli, Gabriele Navarro, Veronique Sousa, Ioan Lucian Prejbeanu, Luca Perniola
2017 Proceedings of the IEEE  
The state-of-the-art Solid State Drives now heterogeneously integrate NAND Flash and DRAM memories to partially hide the limitation of the non-volatile memory technology.  ...  DRAM as well are a limitation in the SSD reliability due to their vulnerability to the power loss events.  ...  Both memory chips demonstrated that PCM can outperform NOR Flash in terms of write and erase speed (i.e., 100-300 ns are needed for SET and RESET), power consumption (100 µA per operation), and area occupation  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2017.2710217 fatcat:fof3pr2ixjfqdd3f226s4qqh7e

Phase change memory

Jing Li, Chung Lam
2011 Science China Information Sciences  
Phase change memory (PCM) is a non-volatile solid-state memory technology based on the large resistivity contrast between the amorphous and crystalline states in phase change materials.  ...  We discuss the scalability, assess the performance, and examine the reliability of PCM including data retention, multi-bit storage and endurance.  ...  In summary, the presence of a switching threshold allows for efficient heating with a moderate applied voltage, which makes PCM technology viable for low voltage operation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11432-011-4223-x fatcat:pfgoik3b7zefne2whsx4yh3d4y

Using non-volatile memory to save energy in servers

D. Roberts, T. Kgil, T. Mudge
2009 2009 Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition  
These technologies display high density and low power consumption as well as persistency that are appealing properties in a memory device.  ...  Recent breakthroughs in circuit and process technology have enabled new usage models for non-volatile memory technologies such as Flash and phase change RAM (PCRAM) in the general purpose computing environment  ...  Our design uses a NAND Flash that stores 2 bits per cell (MLC) and is capable of switching from MLC to SLC mode using techniques proposed in [10] , [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/date.2009.5090763 dblp:conf/date/RobertsKM09 fatcat:ewuqvd7mvrbv3fbmdinqdaew4q

State-of-the-art flash memory devices and post-flash emerging memories

ChihYuan Lu, HangTing Lue, YiChou Chen
2011 Science China Information Sciences  
(One of them, phase change memory, will be covered in a separate article thus not included here.) Their potential applications and challenges for 3D stacking are critically examined.  ...  Flash memory.  ...  The high speed and voltage driven switching makes FeRAM a candidate for high-speed, low power non-volatile memory.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11432-011-4221-z fatcat:zpqszuxdlfc3pop6s6w6k7o5ly

Emerging non-volatile memories

Chun Jason Xue, Youtao Zhang, Yiran Chen, Guangyu Sun, J. Jianhua Yang, Hai Li
2011 Proceedings of the seventh IEEE/ACM/IFIP international conference on Hardware/software codesign and system synthesis - CODES+ISSS '11  
N-VMs generally have advantages such as low leakage power, high density, and fast read spead. At the same time, NVMs also have disadvantages.  ...  In recent years, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies have emerged as candidates for future universal memory.  ...  In a MLC memory bit, n bits are represented by 2 n states, i.e., resistance. By doing so, MLC technology can effectively improve the memory density and power efficiency.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2039370.2039420 dblp:conf/codes/XueZCSYL11 fatcat:citwyxrennhs3hnfigfzcc75ua

NAND Flash Memory Organization and Operations

Novotny R Kadlec J
2015 Journal of Information Technology & Software Engineering  
Acknowledgement This research has been supported by the European ARTEMIS Industry Association by the project 7H12002 "Interactive Power Devices for Efficiency in Automotive with Increased Reliability and  ...  Safety" and by the CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0068 project OP RDI "CEITEC-Central European Institute of Technology".  ...  NAND flash memory is a non-volatile type of memory and has low power consumption. The erasing of NAND Flash memory is based on a block-wise base.  ... 
doi:10.4172/2165-7866.1000139 fatcat:qfkfwr3rzvhmpm43qswf2illu4

Conceptual Design of a Nano-Networking Device

Sebastian Canovas-Carrasco, Antonio-Javier Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe Garcia-Sanchez, Joan Garcia-Haro
2016 Sensors  
A nanodevice is expected to be an essential element able to operate in a nanonetwork, where a huge number of them would coordinate to acquire data, process the information gathered, and wirelessly transmit  ...  , memory storage, telecommunication, and energy management).  ...  MLC 392 nm 2 Mature technology High power consumption Yes Low-cost manufacturing Low write and read speed NOR Flash 1293 nm 2 Mature technology Scalability concerns Yes High read speed  ... 
doi:10.3390/s16122104 pmid:27973430 pmcid:PMC5191084 fatcat:alsbcz7crrdtlbkxoxkqgqvqfu

Modeling Power Consumption of NAND Flash Memories Using FlashPower

V. Mohan, T. Bunker, L. Grupp, S. Gurumurthi, M. R. Stan, S. Swanson
2013 IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  
In this paper, we present FlashPower, a detailed power model for the two most popular variants of NAND flash, namely, the single-level cell (SLC) and 2-bit Multi-Level Cell (MLC) based flash memory chips  ...  There is a rich microarchitectural design space for flash memory, and there are several architectural options for incorporating flash into the memory hierarchy.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tcad.2013.2249557 fatcat:u3jfdclcfnbanhdwyjzx7obzci

Memory and Storage System Design with Nonvolatile Memory Technologies

Jishen Zhao, Cong Xu, Ping Chi, Yuan Xie
2015 IPSJ Transactions on System LSI Design Methodology  
This article reviews recent innovations in rearchitecting the memory and storage system with NVMs, producing high-performance, energy-efficient, and scalable computer designs.  ...  As a result, computer architects are facing significant challenges in developing high-performance, energy-efficient, and reliable memory hierarchies.  ...  In addition, the design can improve the lifetime of NAND-flash by reducing the number of erase operations.  ... 
doi:10.2197/ipsjtsldm.8.2 fatcat:hjmdxg6wgzblpess3ejbdqa2m4

Introduction to the January Special Issue on the 2015 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference

2016 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits  
The first paper, by Sako et al., presents a low-power 64 Gb MLC NAND flash memory capable of 30 MB/s program throughput and 533 MB/s data transfer rate at a 1.8 V supply voltage.  ...  These papers describe significant innovations in the field, including 64 Gb MLC NAND Flash, 128 Gb 3b/cell V-NAND Flash, 28 nm SG-MONOS Flash macro, 0.6 V 84 Mb SRAM in 14 nm FinFET, and 14 nm 1.1 Mb Embedded  ... 
doi:10.1109/jssc.2015.2502519 fatcat:3n3wglza3zgllnjb2bgutznaru

Error Characterization, Mitigation, and Recovery in Flash Memory Based Solid-State Drives [article]

Yu Cai, Saugata Ghose, Erich F. Haratsch, Yixin Luo, Onur Mutlu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We provide rigorous experimental data from state-of-the-art MLC and TLC NAND flash devices on various types of flash memory errors, to motivate the need for such techniques.  ...  NAND flash memory is ubiquitous in everyday life today because its capacity has continuously increased and cost has continuously decreased over decades.  ...  A version of the paper is published as an invited article in Proceedings of the IEEE [11] . This version is almost identical to [11] .  ... 
arXiv:1706.08642v3 fatcat:ozzc62npvzewhgkb54ebvnh5ta

NAND overview: from memory to systems [chapter]

R. Micheloni, A. Marelli, S. Commodaro
2010 Inside NAND Flash Memories  
For hybrid solutions, a multi-die approach, where different memories are packaged in the same chip, is a possibility to reduce both area and power consumption.  ...  Semiconductor memories can be divided into two major categories: RAM, acronym for Random Access Memories, and ROM, acronym for Read Only Memories: RAM loses its content when power supply is switched off  ...  References The concept has been extended recently to 3 bit/cell and 4 bit/cell, where 8 and 16 R. H. Fowler and L. Nordheim, "Electron Emission in Intense Electric Fields,"  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-90-481-9431-5_2 fatcat:7m4nm7bsircczkcrmtp7wydzoq

Phase change memory technology

Geoffrey W. Burr, Matthew J. Breitwisch, Michele Franceschini, Davide Garetto, Kailash Gopalakrishnan, Bryan Jackson, Bülent Kurdi, Chung Lam, Luis A. Lastras, Alvaro Padilla, Bipin Rajendran, Simone Raoux (+1 others)
2010 Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics  
and rapid switching speed.  ...  We then address challenges for the technology, including the design of PCM cells for low RESET current, the need to control device-to-device variability, and undesirable changes in the phase change material  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are many people who have helped the authors prepare for this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1116/1.3301579 fatcat:axaan4wdbbhf3a6ii4wrppriba
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