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Review of Cryptographic Schemes applied to Remote Electronic Voting systems: remaining challenges and the upcoming post-quantum paradigm

David Yeregui Marcos del Blanco, Luis Panizo Alonso, Jose Angel Hermida Alonso
2018 Open Mathematics  
The implantation of Remote Electronic Voting (REV) systems to Electoral Processes is happening at a slower pace than anticipated.  ...  The aim is twofold: contribute to clarify the strengths and weaknesses of each scheme as well as expose the remaining challenges, as a necessary step towards a broader introduction of REV solutions in  ...  LWE-based E-Voting Scheme (Helios) The FHE and lattice-based cryptosystems are still a fairly new research topic and, therefore, there are not many implementations in the e-voting eld.  ... 
doi:10.1515/math-2018-0013 fatcat:lsq74gk375d5xfujz5rgo4zrna

Efficient fully homomorphic encryption with circularly secure key switching process

Tanping Zhou, Xiaoyuan Yang, Wei Zhang, Liqiang Wu
2016 International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking  
(LWE) assumption.  ...  Her main research interests include fully homomorphic encryption, encryption scheme based on lattice. Wu Liqiang, born in 1986. Master.  ...  BGV consists of the scheme based on RLWE and the scheme based on LWE. Based on the Ring LWE assumption, it can reduce the per-gate computation of the bootstrapped version from    schemes.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijhpcn.2016.080414 fatcat:x4kjlohtgbdsnpzosofommqe5y

Efficient fully homomorphic encryption with circularly secure key switching process

Xiaoyuan Yang, Wei Zhang, Liqiang Wu, Tanping Zhou
2016 International Journal of High Performance Computing and Networking  
(LWE) assumption.  ...  Her main research interests include fully homomorphic encryption, encryption scheme based on lattice. Wu Liqiang, born in 1986. Master.  ...  BGV consists of the scheme based on RLWE and the scheme based on LWE. Based on the Ring LWE assumption, it can reduce the per-gate computation of the bootstrapped version from    schemes.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijhpcn.2016.10001329 fatcat:jkpahm6klvdjdekad32tdsgga4

A Comprehensive Study of Fully Homomorphic Encryption Schemes

Majedah Alkharji, Mayyada Al Hammoshi, Hang Liu
2018 Figshare  
This article provides a comprehensive survey of:1. Homomorphic encryption schemes using public key algorithms.2.  ...  Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes.This work can be helpful as a guide to principles, properties of FHE  ...  Researchers implemented a straightforward variant of GSW LWE-based encryption scheme [43] with a tighter analysis of error growth under homomorphic calculations.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.6667562 fatcat:kaoey2rfkjamddzeni24f5t3dm

Homomorphic encryption algorithms and schemes for secure computations in the cloud

Majedah Alkharji, Hang Liu
2018 Figshare  
A detailed survey of homomorphic encryption (HE) using public key algorithms such as RSA, El-Gamal, and Paillier algorithms.2.  ...  Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes.This work can be helpful as a guide to principles, properties of FHE as researchers believe in the possibility of advancement in the FHE area.  ...  As a result, a "new recovered upper bounds for the concrete hardness of these LWE-based schemes" is provided.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.5996759.v1 fatcat:kunl4v6rynawjneutyvtttptpa

Using Homomorphic Cryptographic Solutions on E-voting Systems

Ahmed A. Abu Aziz, Hasan N.Qunoo, Aiman A. Abu Samra
2018 International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security  
Homomorphic Cryptography raised as a new solution used in electronic voting systems. In this research, Fully Homomorphic encryption used to design and implement an e-voting system.  ...  Most of homomorphic cryptography evoting systems based on additive or multiplicative homomorphic encryption.  ...  This scheme based on LWE problem and Ring LWE.  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijcnis.2018.01.06 fatcat:yktqnqilljhejlrpjcbl5wxmzy

A Survey of Homomorphic Encryption for Outsourced Big Data Computation

2016 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
Finally, this paper discusses the current implementation, challenges, and future direction towards a practical homomorphic encryption scheme for securing outsourced Big Data computation.  ...  Existing works on homomorphic encryption are technically reviewed and compared in terms of their encryption scheme, homomorphism classification, algorithm design, noise management, and security assumption  ...  This research was supported by a research grant from RUI, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) [1001/PKOMP/811334].  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2016.08.022 fatcat:plj6fns2l5b6xilzr3kmr3sw4u

A More Efficient Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Based on GSW and DM Schemes

Xun Wang, Tao Luo, Jianfeng Li
2018 Security and Communication Networks  
Based on the DM scheme and another simple FHE scheme proposed by Gentry, Sahai, and Waters (GSW), ciphertext matrix operations and ciphertext vector additions are both applied in our scheme.  ...  And the error rate of our scheme is kept at a sufficiently low level.  ...  Another common application of homomorphic encryption schemes is secure e-voting, where the ballots of voters are encrypted and homomorphic operations are performed on these data [38] [39] [40] [41] .  ... 
doi:10.1155/2018/8706940 fatcat:npet7wknmzamvbjnc2dqrs3ucq

Survey of Various Homomorphic Encryption algorithms and Schemes

Payal V.Parmar, Shraddha B. Padhar, Shafika N. Patel, Niyatee I. Bhatt, Rutvij H. Jhaveri
2014 International Journal of Computer Applications  
well as various homomorphic encryption schemes such as Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV), Enhanced homomorphic Cryptosystem (EHC), Algebra homomorphic encryption scheme based on updated ElGamal (AHEE  ...  In this paper, the main focus is on public key cryptographic algorithms based on homomorphic encryption scheme for preserving security.  ...  Therefore, the Paillier cryptosystem has various applications, for example, e-voting systems, threshold schemes, etc. [15] .  ... 
doi:10.5120/15902-5081 fatcat:x5y7cns7k5bbbjacyg3skl6xlu

On the Weakness of Fully Homomorphic Encryption [article]

Zhengjun Cao, Lihua Liu
2015 arXiv   pre-print
Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) allows anyone to perform computations on encrypted data, despite not having the secret decryption key.  ...  We want to reaffirm that cryptography uses modular arithmetic a lot in order to obscure and dissipate the redundancies in a plaintext message, not to perform any numerical calculations.  ...  For example, if an additively homomorphic encryption is used in an e-voting scheme, one can obtain an encryption of the sum of all ballots from their encryption.  ... 
arXiv:1511.05341v1 fatcat:6bu3ihdbeff4bgcvfas25qdrfi

A Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption Scheme based on Multivariate Polynomial Evaluation [article]

Uddipana Dowerah, Srinivasan Krishnaswamy
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We propose a symmetric key homomorphic encryption scheme based on the evaluation of multivariate polynomials over a finite field.  ...  The proposed scheme is somewhat homomorphic with respect to addition and multiplication.  ...  This scheme is based on ideal lattices and uses the concept of bootstrapping to convert a somewhat homomorphic scheme to a fully homomorphic one.  ... 
arXiv:1902.05771v1 fatcat:kyfw6lrrlng4tffwofopci6ae4

A Review of Cryptographic Electronic Voting

Yun-Xing Kho, Swee-Huay Heng, Ji-Jian Chin
2022 Symmetry  
A vast number of e-voting schemes including mix-net-based e-voting, homomorphic e-voting, blind signature-based e-voting, blockchain-based e-voting, post-quantum e-voting, and hybrid e-voting have been  ...  In addition, we provide a comprehensive review of various types of e-voting approaches in terms of their security properties, underlying tools, distinctive features, and weaknesses.  ...  [151] first combined the LWE fully homomorphic encryption scheme with Helios. Helios is a homomorphic e-voting system.  ... 
doi:10.3390/sym14050858 fatcat:6dzkgrpxgfaanfaxwu3t7teco4

Design of a polynomial ring based symmetric homomorphic encryption scheme

Smaranika Dasgupta, S.K. Pal
2016 Perspectives in Science  
In this paper, we propose a symmetric FHE scheme based on polynomial over ring of integers.  ...  This scheme is somewhat homomorphic due to accumulation of noise after few operations, which is made fully homomorphic using a refresh procedure.  ...  Apart from clouds, there are many more applications of homomorphic encryption schemes such as e-voting, private data processing, encrypted search, etc.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pisc.2016.06.061 fatcat:2n37rhuhebguzmiwmacnjzobg4

How to build a faster private information retrieval protocol?

Wei Zhang, Shuguang Liu, Weidong Zhong, Xiaoyuan Yang
2014 Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing  
A CPA secure multi-bit somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme based on Learning With Errors over Rings assumption is presented.  ...  Keywords Homomorphic encryption Á RLWE assumption Á Canonical embedding Á Private information retrieval Abbreviations PIR Private information retrieval FHE Fully homomorphic encryption SWHE Somewhat homomorphic  ...  We believe that scheme 2 is a practical somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme. 5 Private information retrieval protocol basing on scheme 2 A PBR protocol The most representative application of homomorphic  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12652-014-0239-6 fatcat:rlbhup54crffzmwhopkds25tri

A Simple BGN-Type Cryptosystem from LWE [chapter]

Craig Gentry, Shai Halevi, Vinod Vaikuntanathan
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Security is based on the hardness of learning with errors (LWE), which is known to be as hard as certain worst-case lattice problems.  ...  We construct a simple public-key encryption scheme that supports polynomially many additions and one multiplication, similarly to the cryptosystem of Boneh, Goh, and Nissim (BGN).  ...  In particular, ours is the first reported cryptosystem based on LWE that has more than just additive homomorphism.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13190-5_26 fatcat:dypzr247cbg5xicouhf2siw6ym
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