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A Formally Verified Hybrid System for the Next-Generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System [chapter]

Jean-Baptiste Jeannin, Khalil Ghorbal, Yanni Kouskoulas, Ryan Gardner, Aurora Schmidt, Erik Zawadzki, André Platzer
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The next-generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS X) is intended to be installed on all large aircraft to give advice to pilots and prevent mid-air collisions with other aircraft.  ...  In this paper we determine the geometric configurations under which the advice given by ACAS X is safe under a precise set of assumptions and formally verify these configurations using hybrid systems theorem  ...  , Neal Suchy, the Logical Systems Lab at Carnegie Mellon University, and the ACAS X development team for interesting discussions and remarks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46681-0_2 fatcat:xcxy3phwznho7dg27xrckmb6je

A formally verified hybrid system for safe advisories in the next-generation airborne collision avoidance system

Jean-Baptiste Jeannin, Khalil Ghorbal, Yanni Kouskoulas, Aurora Schmidt, Ryan Gardner, Stefan Mitsch, André Platzer
2016 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
To meet these new requirements, the FAA has decided to develop a new system: the Next-Generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System, known as ACAS X [4, 11, 15] .  ...  Airspace management will evolve significantly over the next decade with the introduction of the next-generation air traffic management system; this will create new requirements for collision avoidance.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-016-0434-1 fatcat:fuv2hpxotzgkfohnetf7bd3eui

Formal Verification of Cyber-Physical Systems using Theorem Proving (Invited Paper) [article]

Adnan Rashid, Umair Siddique, Sofiene Tahar
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In particular, we survey recent developments in the use of theorem proving, a formal method, for the modeling, analysis and verification of CPS, and overview some real world CPS case studies from the automotive  ...  Due to major breakthroughs in software and engineering technologies, embedded systems are increasingly being utilized in areas ranging from aerospace and next-generation transportation systems, to smart  ...  airborne collision avoidance system [50] .  ... 
arXiv:2003.03729v1 fatcat:v57i7srws5afdlixnbype3fztu

Formal verification of ACAS X, an industrial airborne collision avoidance system

Jean-Baptiste Jeannin, Khalil Ghorbal, Yanni Kouskoulas, Ryan Gardner, Aurora Schmidt, Erik Zawadzki, Andre Platzer
2015 2015 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT)  
In this paper we present an overview of our experience using hybrid systems theorem proving to formally verify ACAS X, an airborne collision avoidance system for airliners scheduled to be operational around  ...  More importantly, industrial systems are rarely designed for verification, but rather for operational needs.  ...  on all large passenger aircraft and whose design started in the late 1970s; and the Next-Generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS X) [3, 6, 11] , a complete redesign of the TCAS system initiated  ... 
doi:10.1109/emsoft.2015.7318268 dblp:conf/emsoft/JeanninGKGSZP15 fatcat:nwijf4yhbzd6hhb5wtpek3umx4

Free Flight Collision Risk Estimation by Sequential MC Simulation [chapter]

Henk Blom, Jaroslav Krystul, (Bert) Bakker, Margriet Klompstra, Bart Klein Obbink
2006 Automation and Control Engineering  
The authors thank Mariken Everdij (NLR) for valuable discussions and a thorough review of a draft version of this chapter.  ...  , does not yet incorporate other relevant agents such as Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS), Airline Operations Centre (AOC), Air Traffic Control (ATC), or an environmental model.  ...  Interacting Particle System Based Risk Estimation Based on this theory, an Interacting Particle System (IPS) simulation algorithm is explained next for an arbitrary hybrid state strong Markov process model  ... 
doi:10.1201/9781420008548.ch10 fatcat:pnochdve3rhqjdihlrfuj75b5a

Aircraft Trajectory Modeling and Alerting Algorithm Verification [chapter]

Victor Carreño, César Muñoz
2000 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The formalization is conducted in the general verification system PVS. Introduction.  ...  The formalization presented in this paper has been developed in the general verification system PVS [11] .  ...  Report NASA/TM-2000-209841, NASA, January 2000. [13] RTCA, Minimum operational performance standards for traffic alert and collision avoidance system, (TCAS) airborne equipment ~ consolidated edition,  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-44659-1_6 fatcat:e4ozoidjnrfrpesbp7no2ja4k4

Formal Methods for the Certification of Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems [chapter]

Matt Webster, Michael Fisher, Neil Cameron, Mike Jump
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Next we build a more advanced UAS control system using the autonomous agent language Gwendolen, and verify it against the small subset of the Rules of the Air using the agent model checker AJPF.  ...  We begin by modelling a basic UAS control system in PROMELA, and verify it against a selected subset of the CAA's Rules of the Air using the SPIN model checker.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Charles Patchett and Ben Gorry of BAE Systems (Warton) for their guidance and support.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24270-0_17 fatcat:7z6hlcpiwraijhu4qio7uyt5by

Towards verification of hybrid systems in a foundational proof assistant

Daniel Ricketts, Gregory Malecha, Mario M. Alvarez, Vignesh Gowda, Sorin Lerner
2015 2015 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for Codesign (MEMOCODE)  
We define a TLA-inspired formalism in Coq for reasoning about hybrid systems and use it to verify two quadcopter modules: the first limits the quadcopter's velocity and the second limits its altitude.  ...  Unsafe behavior of hybrid systems can have disastrous consequences, motivating the need for formal verification of the software running on these systems.  ...  Platzer implemented ∂DL in KeYmaera [13] and has used it to verify a number of interesting problems including: an airborne collision avoidance maneuver [18] , intelligent cruise control [19] , and  ... 
doi:10.1109/memcod.2015.7340492 dblp:conf/memocode/RickettsMAGL15 fatcat:pywyub3m45einmyi67boi74zqy

Simplifying Neural Networks using Formal Verification [article]

Sumathi Gokulanathan, Alexander Feldsher, Adi Malca, Clark Barrett, Guy Katz
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We report on the work-flow of the simplification process, and demonstrate its potential significance and applicability on a family of real-world DNNs for aircraft collision avoidance, whose sizes we were  ...  We present a tool that can leverage existing verification engines in performing a novel application: neural network simplification, through the reduction of the size of a DNN without harming its accuracy  ...  This project was partially supported by grants from the Binational Science Foundation (2017662), the Israel Science Foundation (683/18), and the National Science Foundation (1814369).  ... 
arXiv:1910.12396v2 fatcat:z4zadaieq5a5bndutemaqldbf4

Formal Verification of Input-Output Mappings of Tree Ensembles [article]

John Törnblom, Simin Nadjm-Tehrani
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present an efficient method to extract equivalence classes from decision trees and tree ensembles, and to formally verify that their input-output mappings comply with requirements.  ...  This paper presents the implementation of the method in the tool VoTE (Verifier of Tree Ensembles), and evaluates its scalability on two case studies presented in current literature.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by the Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP) funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. References  ... 
arXiv:1905.04194v1 fatcat:vwfcqjyswvc3peth6g4svdlzcq

Mobile robotic sensors for perimeter detection and tracking

Justin Clark, Rafael Fierro
2007 ISA transactions  
Extensive simulation results and experiments verify the validity of the proposed cooperative control scheme.  ...  Specifically, the contributions of this paper are twofold: (i) a library of simple reactive motion control algorithms and (ii) a coordination mechanism for effectively carrying out perimeter-sensing missions  ...  We would like to thank Daniel Cruz for his help with the Gazebo simulations, the mobile platform, and the experiments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.isatra.2006.08.001 pmid:17275822 fatcat:jphim2pz3jfz5pm7uvtgvivswy

A Fuzzy Logic Approach for Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Systems [chapter]

Brandon Cook, Tim Arnett, Kelly Cohen
2017 Modern Fuzzy Control Systems and Its Applications  
The avoidance logic was verified using formal methods and shown to select the correct action in all instances.  ...  The system was evaluated for its effectiveness at mitigating the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft.  ...  In order to generate scenarios to test the sUAS's ability to avoid collisions, a realistic simulation environment was created.  ... 
doi:10.5772/68126 fatcat:wehvcrbcrzc4xmjgvsd4ainz4y

Compositional Verification for Autonomous Systems with Deep Learning Components [article]

Corina S. Pasareanu, Divya Gopinath, Huafeng Yu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We present a compositional approach for the scalable, formal verification of autonomous systems that contain Deep Neural Network components.  ...  As autonomy becomes prevalent in many applications, ranging from recommendation systems to fully autonomous vehicles, there is an increased need to provide safety guarantees for such systems.  ...  In [9] we applied the technique on the MNIST dataset [16] and on a neural network implementation of a controller for the next-generation Airborne Collision Avoidance System for unmanned aircraft (ACAS  ... 
arXiv:1810.08303v1 fatcat:ebmnxm2az5frrirb4zlzefllau

Overview of Logical Foundations of Cyber-Physical Systems [article]

André Platzer
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The logic dL is implemented in the theorem prover KeYmaera X, which has been instrumental in verifying ground robot controllers, railway systems, and the next-generation airborne collision avoidance system  ...  Differential dynamic logic (dL) provides logical specification and rigorous reasoning techniques for hybrid systems.  ...  I thank Brandon Bohrer for his feedback on this overview.  ... 
arXiv:1910.11232v1 fatcat:uqhuwcyi25gr7aq75qvgfmzfe4

Generating probabilistic safety guarantees for neural network controllers

Sydney M. Katz, Kyle D. Julian, Christopher A. Strong, Mykel J. Kochenderfer
2021 Machine Learning  
We show that our method is able to generate meaningful probabilistic safety guarantees for aircraft collision avoidance neural networks that are loosely inspired by Airborne Collision Avoidance System  ...  X (ACAS X), a family of collision avoidance systems that formulates the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP).  ...  Neural networks have been demonstrated as space-efficient controllers for a family of aircraft collision avoidance systems called the Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X) (Julian et al., 2016  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10994-021-06065-9 fatcat:pqtuywwhenga5lvqzavd4nmhb4
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