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A theoretical & empirical znalysis of evolutionary testing and hill climbing for structural test data generation

Mark Harman, Phil McMinn
2007 Proceedings of the 2007 international symposium on Software testing and analysis - ISSTA '07  
Evolutionary testing has been widely studied as a technique for automating the process of test case generation. However, to date, there has been no theoretical examination of when and why it works.  ...  This paper presents a first theoretical analysis of the scenarios in which evolutionary algorithms are suitable for structural test case generation.  ...  This tree of ever fitter schemata form the 'Royal Road'. Thus royal road fitness functions can be formally defined as follows: Definition -Royal Road Fitness Function.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1273463.1273475 dblp:conf/issta/HarmanM07 fatcat:vq2jfn3w7bbhrj6aftehqwfkoa

A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Search-Based Testing: Local, Global, and Hybrid Search

M. Harman, P. McMinn
2010 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
The results of this study reveal that cases exist of test data generation problem that suit each algorithm, thereby suggesting that a hybrid global-local search (a Memetic Algorithm) may be appropriate  ...  This paper presents a theoretical exploration of the most widely studied approach, the global search technique embodied by Genetic Algorithms.  ...  This Royal Road property of the schemata of a set of instances was used as an archetype of the Royal Road by Mitchell et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2009.71 fatcat:vftsxsiqmzee3pftnfziaya4be

Learning building block structure from crossover failure

Zhenhua Li, Erik D. Goodman
2007 Proceedings of the 9th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation - GECCO '07  
Experiments on test functions Royal Road R1 and R2, Holland's Royal Road Challenge function and H-IFF functions show that such a guided operator improves performance.  ...  In the classical binary genetic algorithm, although crossover within a building block (BB) does not always cause a decrease in fitness, any decrease in fitness results from the destruction of some building  ...  EXPERIMENTS ON R1, R2, RR AND H-IFF Experimental Design Test Examples Royal Road functions R1 and R2, Holland's Royal Road Challenge function and the H-IFF function are chosen to be tested step-by-step  ... 
doi:10.1145/1276958.1277202 dblp:conf/gecco/LiG07 fatcat:pgpjkwnt3jfkvcw5rezmmdzgcy

Predictive parameter control

Aldeida Aleti, Irene Moser
2011 Proceedings of the 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation - GECCO '11  
This study introduces a novel method of parameter control, i.e. the dynamic and automated variation of values for parameters used in approximate algorithms.  ...  The results of our experiments show a consistently superior performance of two very different EA algorithms when they are parameterised using the predictive parameter control method.  ...  at an architectural level of system design).  ... 
doi:10.1145/2001576.2001653 dblp:conf/gecco/AletiM11 fatcat:ambwwoyzh5b2nb25q2igd5s6cm

Parallel genetic algorithm with parameter adaptation

Shisanu Tongchim, Prabhas Chongstitvatana
2002 Information Processing Letters  
The parameter adaptation occurs in parallel to the running of genetic algorithm. The proposed method is compared with the algorithms that use random parameter sets and a standard parameter set.  ...  This paper presents an adaptive algorithm that can adjust parameters of genetic algorithm according to the observed performance.  ...  The fitness function proposed in [22] is used. For the royal road problem, the description of the problem was presented in [23] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0020-0190(01)00286-1 fatcat:qq6626zkczaxribchwa5y7l4pq

Mapping the Royal Road and Other Hierarchical Functions

Janet Wiles, Bradley Tonkes
2003 Evolutionary Computation  
Using this technique we present case-study explorations of three fitness functions: royal road, hierarchical-if-and-only-if (H-IFF), and hierarchically decomposable functions (HDF).  ...  The visualisation approach involves an unfolding of the hyperspace into a two-dimensional graph, whose layout represents the topology of the space using a recursive relationship, and whose shading defines  ...  Case Study 1: Royal Road The Royal Road (RR) class of functions was one of the earlier attempts at characterising the class of functions for which genetic algorithms are maximally suited (Mitchell et  ... 
doi:10.1162/106365603766646807 pmid:12875666 fatcat:f2glgq45pnedvkikizqdmhtml4

Experimental study on population-based incremental learning algorithms for dynamic optimization problems

Shengxiang Yang, Xin Yao
2005 Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications  
In this paper, the application of Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithms, a class of evolutionary algorithms, for dynamic problems is investigated.  ...  Using this generator, a series of dynamic problems were systematically constructed from several benchmark stationary problems and an experimental study was carried out to compare the performance of several  ...  function is the same as Mitchell, Forrest and Holland's royal road function R1 [21] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00500-004-0422-3 fatcat:ox45pfaqcfhgdc5fuvny337ore

Practical Search Index as a Hardness Measure for Genetic Algorithms

Zhenhua Li, Erik D. Goodman
2013 Journal of Computers  
A set of simple GA experiments on classical test functions at various population sizes, illustrates the relationship between the PSI, population size, and efficiency of search.  ...  A Practical Search Index (PSI) is defined, related to the size of the space actively searched by the GA, in terms of sizes and numbers of building blocks.  ...  For Royal Road Function 1 (RR1) with m n-bit blocks, P SIRR1 = m2 n .  ... 
doi:10.4304/jcp.8.8.2034-2041 fatcat:6fbsgtkf3bfuvpi7qrspy5zqzq

Non-exhaustive search methods and their use in the minimization of Reed-Muller canonical expansions

G. I. ROBERTSON†, J.F. Miller†, P. Thomson†
1996 International journal of electronics (Print)  
A number of non-exhaustive search algorithms are presented.  ...  They are then used to determine optimum and good polarities for Reed± Muller canonical expansions of Boolean functions, and comparisons are drawn between the relative e ectiveness of each method.  ...  For example Forrest and Mitchell (1993) found the performance of their random mutation hill-climber (RMHC) vastly superior to both the NAHC and SAHC on a set of theoretical ® tness functions (Royal Road  ... 
doi:10.1080/002072196137543 fatcat:wntpqqbngjaapm4uzbo3ysxbla

Choosing the Appropriate Forecasting Model for Predictive Parameter Control

Aldeida Aleti, Irene Moser, Indika Meedeniya, Lars Grunske
2014 Evolutionary Computation  
In this work, we examine the suitability of a variety of prediction methods for the projection of future parameter performance based on previous data.  ...  The assignment of parameter values for a given iteration is based on previously measured performance.  ...  The Royal Road Problem The Royal Road functions are parametrized landscapes, first introduced by Mitchell, Forrest, and Holland [31] .  ... 
doi:10.1162/evco_a_00113 pmid:24144383 fatcat:q45epiab7jehrpgfulgpf4m2nq

Provincializing the Dutch State: South Holland in the 19th Century

Stefan Couperus, Harm Kaal, Nico Randeraad, Paul van Trigt
2018 Administory  
In contrast to the image of the Netherlands as a solid state since the early modern period, this article argues that Dutch statehood was the product of a hard-won process that required a good part of the  ...  The province, in that sense, was not a fixed territorial entity, but an amalgamation of spatial properties, depending on the administrative issue at stake.  ...  issues, the establishment of the Bureau for Roads and Waterways played a crucial role.  ... 
doi:10.2478/adhi-2018-0020 fatcat:rgzflfpbzjat3aazvsds4safhy

Evolutionary Algorithms: From Recombination to Search Distributions [chapter]

H. Mühlenbein, T. Mahnig
2001 Natural Computing Series  
Our main result is that UMDA transforms the discrete optimization problem into a continuous one defined by the average fitness W (p 1 , . . . , p n ) as a function of the univariate marginal distributions  ...  The Factorized Distribution Algorithm (FDA) uses a general factorization of the distribution. For decomposable functions the optimal factorization can be explicitly computed.  ...  We start with the Royal Road function, which was erroneously believed to lay out a royal road for the GA to follow to the optimal string.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-04448-3_7 fatcat:pyarabzqfjexvpbn24pehmtkaa

The Biology of the Southern Ocean. George A. Knox. 1994. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xiv + 444 p, illustrated, hard cover. ISBN 0-521-32211-1. £85.00

Julian Priddle
1995 Polar Record  
I consider the index to be barely adequate for a book of this sort, which should function as an easily accessible reference source.  ...  (John Maunder, Medical Entomology Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Road, Fulbourn, Cambridge CB1 5EL.) THE BIOLOGY OF THE SOUTHERN OCEAN. George A. Knox. 1994 .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0032247400013978 fatcat:ia5csyw2gjfw5fzwvginelnv74

Page 394 of The Athenaeum Vol. , Issue 1276 [page]

1852 The Athenaeum  
A West- End General Practitioner, ee is also a Lecturer at a Medi raduate in ey and Medicine in the'b ¢ Universi of London, and a Fellow the Royal College of iri aaeerice Mide jitery it be aon ~ 444 ities  ...  Author of ‘Prin- ci gees Practice of the Water-Cure. * Functional - 9g pe Allan, Paternoster-row.” yh charged 2, Pathe scientific an of Rowjend a Ret, Foe who presides, needs no commendation of ours..  ... 

Heuristic algorithms in Evolutionary Computations and modular organization of biological macromolecules: applications to directed evolution [article]

Alexander Spirov, Ekaterina Myasnikova
2019 arXiv   pre-print
, as compared to the classic GA tests (Royal Road functions).  ...  A while ago, the ideas of evolutionary biology inspired computer scientists to develop a thriving nowadays field of evolutionary computation (EC), in general, and genetic algorithms (GA), in particular  ...  .; Tom Soh, H. 2012, Selection is more intelligent than design: Improving the affinity of a bivalent ligand through directed evolution. Nucleic Acids Res. 40, 11777-11783.  ... 
arXiv:1912.03212v1 fatcat:5j6tvwpe2zcv7korpfdvbj3c54
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