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A Covert Channel Based on Web Read-time Modulation [article]

Joshua Davis
2014 arXiv   pre-print
A network covert channel is created that operates by modulating the time between web resource accesses, with an 'average web user' read-time used as a reference.  ...  The channel is thus immune to methods typically used to detect timing based network covert channels.  ...  A COVERT CHANNEL BASED ON WEB PAGE READ-TIME Our transmitter communicates its message by altering web read-time, with degree of deviation from a pseudo-randomized and shared (between the transmitter and  ... 
arXiv:1410.1735v2 fatcat:cyka7wqmc5alfm4cxcfwlgwuv4

Secret message sharing using online social media

Jianxia Ning, Indrajeet Singh, Harsha V. Madhyastha, Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy, Guohong Cao, Prasant Mohapatra
2014 2014 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security  
We demonstrate that, despite the processing on photo-sharing sites, our approach ensures reliable covert communication, without increasing the likelihood of being detected via steganalysis.  ...  In this paper, we address these issues to facilitate private communications on photo-sharing sites.  ...  The US government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation here on.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cns.2014.6997500 dblp:conf/cns/NingSMKCM14 fatcat:rzf56avaszapdgf6ofokruwpxu

A Survey of Key Technologies for Constructing Network Covert Channel

Jing Tian, Gang Xiong, Zhen Li, Gaopeng Gou
2020 Security and Communication Networks  
(based on proxy and anonymity communication technology).  ...  In this paper, we divide the key technologies for constructing network covert channels into two aspects: communication content level (based on information steganography) and transmission network level  ...  Most studies on CTCs are based on this. Cabuk et al. proposed On-Off CTC [42] , which is a time window-based method. e sender and receiver share a time window T w .  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/8892896 fatcat:awf75hsesngwjowhuq55f6ijkm

A Covert Channel Using Named Resources [article]

Joshua Davis, Victor S. Frost
2014 arXiv   pre-print
A network covert channel is created that uses resource names such as addresses to convey information, and that approximates typical user behavior in order to blend in with its environment.  ...  The channel correlates available resource names with a user defined code-space, and transmits its covert message by selectively accessing resources associated with the message codes.  ...  Transaction level timing is highly dependent on resource content and on the subjective user.  ... 
arXiv:1408.4749v1 fatcat:pszs2735ijf3pg6jq66vvkczm4

Sensitive research topics: netnography revisited

Roy Langer, Suzanne C. Beckman, Richard Elliott
2005 Qualitative Market Research  
Based on a discussion of netnography's position in between discourse analysis, content analysis and ethnography, it is argued for the legitimacy of covert research, including a revision of existing guidelines  ...  about cosmetic surgery on a Danish internet message board.  ...  a popular womens' web site (www.oestrogen.dk) with predominantly female users.  ... 
doi:10.1108/13522750510592454 fatcat:j3xccbc63ffyzi5fgqpgupunnq

Data exfiltration and covert channels

Annarita Giani, Vincent H. Berk, George V. Cybenko, Edward M. Carapezza
2006 Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense V  
The following is a list of some type of spyware: Cookies and Web bugs: A cookie is a file on a Web users hard drive that is used by Web sites to record data about the user.  ...  The set of all possible exfiltration methods contains, at a minimum, the set of all possible information communication methods, and possibly more.  ...  A general form of covert communications channel is based on the idea of exploiting time delays between transmitted packets in order to implement a form of Morse-like code.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.670123 fatcat:7d36eve6zjdznfk7aimmzo5ke4

A framework for avoiding steganography usage over HTTP

Jorge Blasco, Julio Cesar Hernandez-Castro, José María de Fuentes, Benjamín Ramos
2012 Journal of Network and Computer Applications  
Our experiments show that steganographic contents can generally be successfully eliminated, but that dealing with high payload carriers such as large images may introduce notable delays in the communication  ...  Steganographic techniques allow users to covertly transmit information, hiding the existence of the communication itself.  ...  Depending on the users and the intended applications, there are two main possibilities. In the former, a user establishes a covert communication between him and a web server.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2011.10.003 fatcat:ybhlvzs735b2djeshcqydegqka

Social Media Exploitation by Covert Networks: A Case Study of ISIS

Lee A. Freeman, Robert Schroeder, Sean F. Everton
2017 Communications of the Association for Information Systems  
Social media has quickly become a dominant mode of professional and personal communication.  ...  However, through tracking and analyzing social media content, government agencies (in particular those in the intelligence community) can mitigate this threat by uncovering these covert networks, their  ...  The CORE Lab develops and teaches methods to map out the human domain-primarily focused on covert networks (i.e., illegal or covert networks)-by advancing three primary types of analysis: social network  ... 
doi:10.17705/1cais.04105 fatcat:2ypp2dt7krb57fs2f53utz7cra

An evidence synthesis of strategies, enablers and barriers for keeping secrets online regarding the procurement and supply of illicit drugs

Aikaterini Grimani, Anna Gavine, Wendy Moncur
2020 International journal of drug policy  
Five covert behaviours were identified: the use of communication channels; anonymity; visibility reduction; limited posts in public; following forum rules and recommendations.  ...  This review takes a rigorous interdisciplinary approach to synthesising knowledge on the strategies adopted by people in keeping secrets online.  ...  Content analysis is a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding (Stemler, 2001) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.102621 pmid:31830617 fatcat:gk5drlhprjcghjvuk4yqoylwuq

Covert Online Ethnography and Machine Learning for Detecting Individuals at Risk of Being Drawn into Online Sex Work

Panos Kostakos, Lucie Sprachalova, Abhinay Pandya, Mohamed Aboeleinen, Mourad Oussalah
2018 2018 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM)  
Unlike prior work which focuses exclusively on either qualitative or quantitative methods, in this paper we combine covert online ethnography with semi-supervised learning methodologies, using data from  ...  We obtained risk assessment results of 78 users using covert online ethnography, and set out to build a machine learning model that can predict the risk factor in other 28,832 users.  ...  Data and Concepts We selected a popular European adult dating forum as our ethnographic research site based on prior knowledge.  ... 
doi:10.1109/asonam.2018.8508276 dblp:conf/asunam/KostakosSPA018 fatcat:acv2fildyrabznkmddg7bs2fqy

Web tap

Kevin Borders, Atul Prakash
2004 Proceedings of the 11th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '04  
Subsequently, Web Tap was evaluated on several available HTTP covert tunneling programs as well as a test backdoor program, which creates a remote shell from outside the network to a protected machine  ...  Based on the analysis of HTTP traffic over a training period, we designed filters to help detect anomalies in outbound HTTP traffic using metrics such as request regularity, bandwidth usage, interrequest  ...  We also appreciate feedback from Patrick McDaniel and the reviewers on earlier versions of the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1030083.1030100 dblp:conf/ccs/BordersP04 fatcat:4eydrygtnzc63fewvkxz5sk2qu

A Novel Approach Covert Channel for Secret Communications

Ali Hussein Hadi
2015 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY  
This new channel method (called Under Your Radar (UYR)) provides a stealthiness method for the communication channel and an efficient method for hiding messages, as proved by our investigations.  ...  This paper presents a novel covert channel for secret communications. It implements a new application layer covert channel, by applying multimedia steganography techniques to hide secret messages.  ...  In order to achieve a stealthier channel, the new covert channel is based on steganography and running over a public social network.  ... 
doi:10.24297/ijct.v14i2.2084 fatcat:pl6w5iyamfaddcczvvl7zdngjy

Inside the "Pro-ana" Community: A Covert Online Participant Observation

Sarah R. Brotsky, David Giles
2007 Eating Disorders  
RQ2 and RQ3 (user and community beliefs) were explored in a more direct fashion, by developing SB's persona as a typical pro-ana site user based on previous research (especially Giles, 2006) and extensive  ...  In a very general sense, many pro-ana site users were keen to offer support to new members.  ... 
doi:10.1080/10640260701190600 pmid:17454069 fatcat:mb2uqbdo3ba73j5b2dgco5uft4

Secure asymmetry and deployability for decoy routing systems

Cecylia Bocovich, Ian Goldberg
2018 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
deliver censored content to users.  ...  Decoy routing systems offer a solution to censor- ship resistance that has the potential to tilt this race in the favour of the censorship resistor by using real connections to unblocked, overt sites to  ...  covert content to the user.  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2018-0020 dblp:journals/popets/BocovichG18 fatcat:akd2pkboarc4pmcsrx2lp3z62u

Browser-Based Covert Data Exfiltration [article]

Kenton Born
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Many methods of covert communication involve crafting custom packets, typically requiring both the necessary software and elevated privileges on the system.  ...  By exploiting the functionality of a browser, covert channels for data exfiltration may be created without additional software or user privileges.  ...  A privacy-based approach was analyzed in by Bauer (Bauer 2003) where an anonymous overlay network was developed using embedded cookies, redirects, and active content.  ... 
arXiv:1004.4357v1 fatcat:woczn22f7vcadnksaeirk33eye
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