Filters








1,196 Hits in 6.6 sec

Computational Hardness of Collective Coin-Tossing Protocols

Hemanta K. Maji
2020 Entropy  
Ben-Or and Linial, in a seminal work, introduced the full information model to study collective coin-tossing protocols.  ...  This survey summarizes the current state-of-the-art of coin-tossing protocols in the full information model and recent advances in this field.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/e23010044 pmid:33396773 fatcat:3jjfwa2mj5gsteomwlmaapptoa

Can quantum mechanics help distributed computing? [article]

Anne Broadbent, Alain Tapp
2008 arXiv   pre-print
We present a brief survey of results where quantum information processing is useful to solve distributed computation tasks.  ...  The main focus of the survey is on communication complexity but we also address other distributed tasks.  ...  Acknowledgements Thanks to Idit Keidar for inviting us to write this survey which, we hope, will create awareness of quantum computation in the community.  ... 
arXiv:0810.5317v1 fatcat:ek6qzmv25nesjc2mwphsnewft4

Toward a Game Theoretic View of Secure Computation

Gilad Asharov, Ran Canetti, Carmit Hazay
2015 Journal of Cryptology  
Next, we concentrate on fairness. Here we demonstrate a Game Theoretic notion and two different cryptographic notions that turn out to all be equivalent.  ...  We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security.  ...  Related Work We stress that our Game Theoretic approach of fairness implies an entirely different notion than the cryptographic notions of fairness and is in particular different than "complete fairness  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-015-9212-6 fatcat:2a2im4xaijafpoeadm6wuefp2i

Universal Composability from Essentially Any Trusted Setup [chapter]

Mike Rosulek
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The main technical contribution in this work is an almost-total characterization of completeness for 2-party setups.  ...  In this work we classify the power of such trusted (2-party) setup functionalities.  ...  Our characterization is based on the concept of splittability from [35] . To give a sense of splittability, imagine the following two-party game between a "synchronizer" and a "distinguisher."  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32009-5_24 fatcat:ruvem7ngdzbopmdzbwy2ppzpue

Towards a Game Theoretic View of Secure Computation [chapter]

Gilad Asharov, Ran Canetti, Carmit Hazay
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Next, we concentrate on fairness. Here we demonstrate a Game Theoretic notion and two different cryptographic notions that turn out to all be equivalent.  ...  We demonstrate how Game Theoretic concepts and formalism can be used to capture cryptographic notions of security.  ...  We stress that our Game Theoretic approach of fairness implies an entirely different notion than the cryptographic notions of fairness, and is in particular different than "complete fairness" [19] where  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20465-4_24 fatcat:wrloku7wbng4bcnjjnobvguilq

Partial Fairness in Secure Two-Party Computation [chapter]

S. Dov Gordon, Jonathan Katz
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A seminal result of Cleve (STOC '86) is that complete fairness is impossible to achieve in two-party computation.  ...  We propose a definition of partial fairness within the standard real-/ideal-world paradigm that addresses deficiencies of prior definitions.  ...  We are not aware of any results in this direction except for the case of coin tossing [10, 27] , or functions where complete fairness is possible [21] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13190-5_8 fatcat:lghjixosivavxj5fjwmonxxkeq

Fair Coin Flipping: Tighter Analysis and the Many-Party Case

Niv Buchbinder, Iftach Haitner, Nissan Levi, Eliad Tsfadia
2017 Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms  
In a multi-party fair coin-flipping protocol, the parties output a common (close to) unbiased bit, even when some adversarial parties try to bias the output.  ...  We prove the fairness of the new protocol by presenting a new paradigm for analyzing fairness of coin-flipping protocols.  ...  The New Multi-Party Fair Coin-Flipping Protocol Our coin-flipping protocol follows the paradigm of Haitner and Tsfadia [35] .  ... 
doi:10.1137/1.9781611974782.170 dblp:conf/soda/BuchbinderHLT17 fatcat:obalghjvnfb7lbkdikrdi2bkre

Partial Fairness in Secure Two-Party Computation

S. Dov Gordon, Jonathan Katz
2010 Journal of Cryptology  
A seminal result of Cleve (STOC '86) is that, in general, complete fairness is impossible to achieve in two-party computation.  ...  We propose a definition of partial fairness within the standard real-/ideal-world paradigm that addresses deficiencies of prior definitions.  ...  We also thank the authors of [29] for sharing a copy of their manuscript with us.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-010-9079-5 fatcat:yi7643iak5hunkpfkdz4dzfvgi

Game theory meets network security and privacy

Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Quanyan Zhu, Tansu Alpcan, Tamer Bacşar, Jean-Pierre Hubaux
2013 ACM Computing Surveys  
This survey provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the research contributions that analyze and solve security and privacy problems in computer networks by game-theoretic approaches.  ...  In addition, a discussion on advantages, drawbacks, and the future direction of using game theory in this field is provided.  ...  To explain how their protocol works, let us again consider the example of three parties in Figure 11 . Each party can toss a fair coin and be forced to reveal the outcome.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2480741.2480742 fatcat:55ixmohvijaelflxqrrbtnvfuu

A new axiomatization for likelihood gambles [article]

Phan H. Giang
2012 arXiv   pre-print
Likelihood gambles describe actions in a situation where a decision maker knows multiple probabilistic models and a random sample generated from one of those models but does not know prior probability  ...  This new axiom system is inspired by Jensen's axiomatization of probabilistic gambles. Our approach provides a new perspective to the role of data in decision making under ambiguity.  ...  Coins head tail E(a) θ 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 θ 2 0.4 0.6 0.4 a 1 0 Coins head tail E(a ′ ) θ ′ 1 0 1.0 0.5 θ ′ 2 0.2 0.8 0.4 a ′ 0 0.5 θ 1 is a fair coin, θ ′ 1 is a double-tail coin, θ 2 is a bias coin of 4-to  ... 
arXiv:1206.6834v1 fatcat:bssc66b6qvdtbhhfgriymkkqnm

Mathematical foundations of modern cryptography: computational complexity perspective [article]

Shafi Goldwasser
2002 arXiv   pre-print
I will describe the complexity theoretic foundations underlying the cryptographic tasks of encryption, pseudo-randomness number generators and functions, zero knowledge interactive proofs, and multi-party  ...  Theoretical computer science has found fertile ground in many areas of mathematics.  ...  coin tosses of A.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0212055v1 fatcat:3ps4ukwnwrat7avo5tw7ifksue

Feasibility and Completeness of Cryptographic Tasks in the Quantum World [chapter]

Serge Fehr, Jonathan Katz, Fang Song, Hong-Sheng Zhou, Vassilis Zikas
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In the quantum world, functionalities in the class we consider are either complete, trivial, or belong to a family of simultaneous-exchange functionalities (e.g., XOR).  ...  In the information-theoretic setting, the quantum and classical worlds differ.  ...  Bob receives output s A and Alice receives output b if s A = 1, and receives ⊥ if s A = 0. • Coin Tossing F COIN : Alice and Bob input a request to F COIN , and F COIN randomly chooses a fair coin r ∈  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36594-2_16 fatcat:iycjx6b5lzabzhgukkdpepxvxq

CAN QUANTUM MECHANICS HELP DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING?

ANNE BROADBENT, ALAIN TAPP
2010 International Journal of Quantum Information  
Amplitudes are complex numbers and thus the complete description of a string of n qubits requires 2 n complex numbers.  ...  Entanglement is strange, useful and not completely understood. Some of the results described in this survey will shed light on this facet of quantum mechanics.  ...  Acknowledgements Thanks to Idit Keidar for inviting us to write this survey which, we hope, will create awareness of quantum computation in the community.  ... 
doi:10.1142/s0219749910006332 fatcat:jgrwfryxy5hq5mbipbsmngfmk4

Mechanisms for Automated Negotiation in State Oriented Domains [article]

G. Zlotkin, J. S. Rosenschein
1996 arXiv   pre-print
This paper lays part of the groundwork for a domain theory of negotiation, that is, a way of classifying interactions so that it is clear, given a domain, which negotiation mechanisms and strategies are  ...  We use the notion of worth in an altered definition of utility, thus enabling agreements in a wider class of joint-goal reachable situations.  ...  This research began while Zlotkin was a liated with the Institute of Computer Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and was supported by the Leibniz Center for Research in Computer Science.  ... 
arXiv:cs/9610101v1 fatcat:6rbs6ld5vrbibjzm6anhwfyjja

Mechanisms for Automated Negotiation in State Oriented Domains

G. Zlotkin, J. S. Rosenschein
1996 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
This paper lays part of the groundwork for a domain theory of negotiation, that is, a way of classifying interactions so that it is clear, given a domain, which negotiation mechanisms and strategies are  ...  We use the notion of worth in an altered definition of utility, thus enabling agreements in a wider class of joint-goal reachable situations.  ...  This research began while Zlotkin was a liated with the Institute of Computer Science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and was supported by the Leibniz Center for Research in Computer Science.  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.72 fatcat:7a44i5v6vzgcnm2pcdca62mune
« Previous Showing results 1 — 15 out of 1,196 results