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A Clustering and Demotion Based Algorithm for Inductive Learning of Default Theories [article]

Huaduo Wang, Farhad Shakerin, Gopal Gupta
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We present a clustering- and demotion-based algorithm called Kmeans-FOLD to induce nonmonotonic logic programs from positive and negative examples.  ...  Our experiments on the UCI dataset show that a combination of K-Means clustering and our demotion strategy produces significant improvement for datasets with more than one cluster of positive examples.  ...  (v) extending our algorithm for multi-relational input datasets. Note that our work reported here that makes use of clustering and demotion to improve the FOLD algorithm is just the beginning.  ... 
arXiv:2109.12624v1 fatcat:6gkpo2yco5cgniiwr5wo7naowm

A Maximum Entropy Model of Phonotactics and Phonotactic Learning

Bruce Hayes, Colin Wilson
2008 Linguistic Inquiry  
The study of phonotactics is a central topic in phonology. We propose a theory of phonotactic grammars and a learning algorithm that constructs such grammars from positive evidence.  ...  We apply the model in a variety of learning simulations, showing that the learned grammars capture the distributional generalizations of these languages and accurately predict the findings of a phonotactic  ...  For OT, the Constraint Demotion algorithm family of Tesar and Smolensky (1998, 2000) satisfies the first of these criteria in a sense, as it provably converges for the case of consistent input-output  ... 
doi:10.1162/ling.2008.39.3.379 fatcat:ft5axndkgvabdmnnkutsaqbiom

Optimality Theory and phonological acquisition

Paul Boersma, Clara Levelt
2004 Annual Review of Language Acquisition  
We thank the editors of ARLA for helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.  ...  Acknowledgements We are grateful to the people who responded to our survey for their time and effort: Jessica Barlow, Katherine Demuth, Daniel Dinnsen, Dicky Gilbers, Steven Gillis, Bruce Hayes, Lise Menn  ...  It is not bad in general for a learning algorithm to fail on certain input data.  ... 
doi:10.1075/arla.3.03boe fatcat:ejblyl6birachdsykjek66nmpy

Participant association and emergent curriculum in a MOOC: can the community be the curriculum?

Frances Bell, Jenny Mackness, Mariana Funes
2016 Research in Learning Technology  
We investigated how participants associated with each other and developed community in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) about Rhizomatic Learning (Rhizo14).  ...  Our combination of thematic analysis of qualitative survey data with analysis of participant observation, activity data, archives and visualisation of SNS data enabled us to reach a deeper understanding  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Rhizo14 participants especially those who gave their time to complete the survey and answer our questions.  ... 
doi:10.3402/rlt.v24.29927 fatcat:zlqq54djlnby5digfdxq5bwfna

An empirical study of on-line models for relational data streams

Ashwin Srinivasan, Michael Bain
2016 Machine Learning  
In this paper, we investigate the adoption of a stream-based on-line learning approach to relational data.  ...  To date, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) systems have largely assumed that all data needed for learning have been provided at the onset of model construction.  ...  Some part of this work was supported by a Ramanujan Fellowship from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10994-016-5596-2 fatcat:hxumvsflobg4po4e2fzv6xsm3q

Loanword accentuation in Yanbian Korean: a weighted-constraints analysis

Chiyuki Ito
2013 Natural language & linguistic theory  
These markedness constraints are weighted by the learning algorithm so that the weight hierarchy can achieve a more or less "faithful adaptation" of the source language.  ...  Through a learning process, the original faithfulness constraints to the source language are demoted below relevant markedness constraints.  ...  I also thank Adam Albright for sharing with me the program for the learning algorithm used in section 4.1, and Shigeto Kawahara for advice about statistics.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11049-013-9211-y fatcat:4lvfom2xvjdgrjzv6wb5mlfshu

Machine Learning in Automated Text Categorization [article]

Fabrizio Sebastiani
2001 arXiv   pre-print
In the research community the dominant approach to this problem is based on machine learning techniques: a general inductive process automatically builds a classifier by learning, from a set of preclassified  ...  of expert manpower, and straightforward portability to different domains.  ...  Acknowledgements This paper owes a lot to the suggestions and constructive criticism of Norbert Fuhr and David Lewis.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0110053v1 fatcat:fmqocqebfnahlhbnpizcvo6kri

Bias in data‐driven artificial intelligence systems—An introductory survey

Eirini Ntoutsi, Pavlos Fafalios, Ujwal Gadiraju, Vasileios Iosifidis, Wolfgang Nejdl, Maria‐Esther Vidal, Salvatore Ruggieri, Franco Turini, Symeon Papadopoulos, Emmanouil Krasanakis, Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Katharina Kinder‐Kurlanda (+11 others)
2020 Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery  
In this survey, we focus on data-driven AI, as a large part of AI is powered nowadays by (big) data and powerful machine learning algorithms.  ...  Therefore, it is necessary to move beyond traditional AI algorithms optimized for predictive performance and embed ethical and legal principles in their design, training, and deployment to ensure social  ...  CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.  ... 
doi:10.1002/widm.1356 fatcat:hbdgabycvndpjmgn7rjzkkk5ma

Stochastic phonological knowledge: the case of Hungarian vowel harmony

Bruce Hayes, Zsuzsa Cziráky Londe
2006 Phonology  
We model the speakers' knowledge and intuitions with a grammar constructed under the dual listing/generation model of Zuraw (2000) , then show how the constraint rankings of this grammar can be learned  ...  by algorithm. * * We would like to thank for helpful advice.  ...  Both of our algorithms, Low Faithfulness Constraint Demotion and Biased Constraint Demotion, require a set of losing candidates for learning (the rankings are learned by comparing these losers with winning  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0952675706000765 fatcat:qehnihi5dffghjqjmfqqxwkwee

The Actuation Problem in Optimality Theory [chapter]

Ricardo Bermúdez-Otero, Richard M. Hogg
2003 Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory  
We show that, whereas OT predicts this state of affairs, rule-based theories cannot account for the facts without imposing contradictory demands on acquisition theory.  ...  It is therefore suggested that, as a theory of grammar, OT will play a secondary role in accounts of phonologization.  ...  These criteria are compatible with noninnatist approaches such as Hayes's (1999) theory of inductive grounding, where the learner is equipped with an algorithm for constraint discovery that guarantees  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-010-0195-3_4 fatcat:fqxrhr7otzerffou3e4a2woalu

Bias in Data-driven AI Systems – An Introductory Survey [article]

Eirini Ntoutsi, Pavlos Fafalios, Ujwal Gadiraju, Vasileios Iosifidis, Wolfgang Nejdl, Maria-Esther Vidal, Salvatore Ruggieri, Franco Turini, Symeon Papadopoulos, Emmanouil Krasanakis, Ioannis Kompatsiaris, Katharina Kinder-Kurlanda, Claudia Wagner (+9 others)
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this survey, we focus on data-driven AI, as a large part of AI is powered nowadays by (big) data and powerful Machine Learning (ML) algorithms.  ...  Therefore, it is necessary to move beyond traditional AI algorithms optimized for predictive performance and embed ethical and legal principles in their design, training and deployment to ensure social  ...  Acknowledgement This work is supported by the project "NoBias -Artificial Intelligence without Bias", which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme  ... 
arXiv:2001.09762v1 fatcat:is3pn4c2srgdfbjnpvbwodoura

Functional Representation of Prototypes in LVQ and Relevance Learning [chapter]

Friedrich Melchert, Udo Seiffert, Michael Biehl
2016 Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing  
The overall acceptance rate was 88% (63% for regular papers, 100% for compressed contributions and demonstration abstracts, and 91% for thesis abstracts).  ...  (University of Kent), Frank van Harmelen (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam), Hado van Hasselt (Google DeepMind), and Manuela Veloso (Carnegie Mellon University), a Research meets Business session, a panel  ...  This work successfully builds on previous theories from the field of new media and linguistics.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28518-4_28 fatcat:uwxvq6txmrba3ajulmblafgh2a

Cognitive resource depletion in religious interactions

Uffe Schjoedt, Jesper Sørensen, Kristoffer Laigaard Nielbo, Dimitris Xygalatas, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Joseph Bulbulia
2013 Religion, Brain & Behavior  
We explore the cognitive effects of three common features of religious interactions: (1) demand for the expressive suppression of emotion; (2) exposure to goaldemoted and causally opaque actions; and (  ...  Using a cognitive resource model of executive function, we argue that these three features affect the executive system in ways that limit the capacity for individual processing of religious events.  ...  Many of our actions and choices are the result of subconscious algorithms and associational processing.  ... 
doi:10.1080/2153599x.2012.736714 fatcat:mvb7nhxsizc4jopt55dp67jcmu

On Evaluation Metrics in Optimality Theory

Ezer Rasin, Roni Katzir
2016 Linguistic Inquiry  
We develop an evaluation metric for Optimality Theory that allows a learner to induce a lexicon and a phonological grammar from unanalyzed surface forms.  ...  final l of table 'table' is optional and can be deleted while that of parle 'speak' cannot.  ...  Our goal has been to argue for MDL as a learning theory for OT, and Heinz and Idsardi's generalization is currently of no help in choosing among such theories.  ... 
doi:10.1162/ling_a_00210 fatcat:7cq2lygd6zhlfpln5rvikftbqm

Deletion or epenthesis? On the falsifiability of phonological universals

Rebecca L. Morley
2015 Lingua  
This paper presents a revised typology of consonant epenthesis and explores the theoretical implications of such a typology.  ...  Through careful re-analysis, the basis for a proposed universal of coronal preference and dorsal avoidance is shown to be lacking in evidential support.  ...  property of a learning algorithm).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2014.11.002 fatcat:xw6dsnecyvb2bbqs6bgnge6oxm
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