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A Bailout Protocol for Mixed Criticality Systems

Iain Bate, Alan Burns, Robert I. Davis
2015 2015 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
In this paper a new bailout protocol is developed that still guarantees high criticality tasks but minimises the negative impact on lower criticality tasks via a timely return to normal operation.  ...  To move mixed criticality research into industrial practice requires models whose run-time behaviour is acceptable to systems engineers.  ...  A mixed criticality system (MCS) is one that has two or more distinct levels (for example safety critical and mission critical).  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2015.30 dblp:conf/ecrts/BateBD15 fatcat:75nsnjv2h5amtdtrtakx2ler6e

An Enhanced Bailout Protocol for Mixed Criticality Embedded Software

Iain Bate, Alan Burns, Robert I. Davis
2017 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
Preliminary publication This paper extends initial research into a bailout protocol for mixed criticality systems presented at ECRTS 2015 [1].  ...  System Model and Assumptions In this paper, we are interested in the Fixed Priority Preemptive Scheduling (FPPS) of a mixed criticality system comprising a static 3.  ...  The authors would like to thank Frank Soboczenski for his help in producing the graphs used in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2016.2592907 fatcat:cdl5tnhaxffuxjsuhplnrlvqka

A Lazy Bailout Approach for Dual-Criticality Systems on Uniprocessor Platforms

Saverio Iacovelli, Raimund Kirner
2019 Designs  
In this paper, we present the Lazy Bailout Protocol (LBP), a mixed-criticality scheduling method where low-criticality jobs overrunning their time budget cannot threaten the timeliness of high-criticality  ...  A challenge in the design of cyber-physical systems is to integrate the scheduling of tasks of different criticality, while still providing service guarantees for the higher critical tasks in the case  ...  Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank Olga Tveretina for general comments on how to improve proofs. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/designs3010010 fatcat:q5ksn6oz4jga5ixexwzulykgui

Progress-aware Dynamic Slack Exploitation in Mixed-critical Systems: Work-in-Progress

Angeliki Kritikakou, Stefanos Skalistis
2020 2020 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT)  
Mixed-critical systems consist of high criticality and low criticality applications.  ...  When a high criticality task exceeds its less pessimistic Worst Case Execution Time (WCET), the system switches mode and low criticality tasks are usually dropped.  ...  To reduce this negative impact, mixed-critical systems use different WCET estimations for high criticality tasks: a safe, but pessimistic, upper bound (C H ), typically based on static analysis, and a  ... 
doi:10.1109/emsoft51651.2020.9244032 fatcat:hlttxptnhjgkze25m3fuai2bva

On-the-fly fast overrun budgeting for mixed-criticality systems

Biao Hu, Kai Huang, Pengcheng Huang, Lothar Thiele, Alois Knoll
2016 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Embedded Software - EMSOFT '16  
Our main idea is to perform overrun budgeting for all tasks as a whole, by monitoring task executions and updating a common overrun budget.  ...  In mixed-criticality scheduling, the widely assumed modeswitch scheme assumes that both high-and low-criticality tasks are schedulable when no tasks overrun (normal mode) and all high-criticality tasks  ...  In [6] , a bailout protocol was developed to timely switch the system back to the LO mode by relying on a so-called bailout fund, instead of a system idle tick [12] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2968478.2968491 dblp:conf/emsoft/Hu0HTK16 fatcat:g5hgfeiulbhevjlcmi3ziwz2g4

A Survey of Research into Mixed Criticality Systems

Alan Burns, Robert I. Davis
2017 ACM Computing Surveys  
Systems with more than one criticality level that only aim to give complete isolation are called multiple-criticality systems; the use of mixed-criticality implies some tradeoff between isolation and integration  ...  This survey covers research into mixed criticality systems that has been published since Vestal's seminal paper in 2007, up until the end of 2016.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Sanjoy Baruah for a number of very useful discussions on MCS.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3131347 fatcat:6ax3uztmjnaelgzwipjdcsfuaa

Justifying the Service Provided to Low Criticality Tasks in a Mixed Criticality System

Stephen Law, Iain Bate, Benjamin Lesage
2020 Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems  
However a signiicant gap in the analysis is to understand for how long the service to low criticality tasks may be reduced, i.e. how often the system switches to a high-criticality mode and how long the  ...  The result is a safety argument with supporting evidence based on a real life case study, taken from a DAL-A certiied aircraft engine control system. 1 CCS CONCEPTS • Computer systems organization → Real-time  ...  This work was funded by the INNOVATE UK funded Automated Timing framework of Interference in Critical Systems (ATICS) project (KTP010577).  ... 
doi:10.1145/3394810.3394814 dblp:conf/rtns/LawBL20 fatcat:3lr7zu7i5bakngiqbwhlkazesu

Mixed criticality systems with weakly-hard constraints

Oliver Gettings, Sophie Quinton, Robert I. Davis
2015 Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time and Networks Systems - RTNS '15  
Mixed criticality systems contain components of at least two criticality levels which execute on a common hardware platform in order to more efficiently utilise resources.  ...  To address the service abrupt issue this work presents a new policy, Adaptive Mixed Criticality -Weakly Hard which provides a guaranteed minimum quality of service for low criticality tasks in the event  ...  [17] developed a Bailout Protocol for mixed criticality systems which provides a facility to return to LO criticality mode.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2834848.2834850 dblp:conf/rtns/GettingsQD15 fatcat:hyspiukiifh7npsbtjkb7pmg7e

Procedural Sedation Intubation in a Paramedic-Staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical System in Northern Finland

Sami Länkimäki, Michael Spalding, Antti Saari, Seppo Alahuhta
2021 Air Medical Journal  
A paramedic-staffed helicopter emergency medical system in Northern Finland operates in a rural area without an emergency physician and paralytic medications and treats critically ill patients using basic  ...  The use of a rigid standard operating procedure for paramedic rapid sequence induction, paralytics, a video laryngoscope, and a gum elastic bougie might positively affect the ETI first-pass success rate  ...  The authors would like to thank helicopter emergency medical service paramedic Tero Karvinen for his professional comments and his role in this study.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.amj.2021.08.012 pmid:34794775 fatcat:lrdbppr3tnfqxn6gkoopo453dq

EU Bailout Conditionality as a De Facto Mode of Government – a neo-liberal 'black hole' for the Greek Collective Labour Law system?

Ioannis Katsaroumpas
2013 Kritische Vierteljahresschrift für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft  
l'identification de ses principales caractéristiques institutionnelles, procédurales et fondamentales, l'hypothèse néo-libérale est finalement affirmée (partie 2), démontrant sa nature de « trou noir » à  ...  for the single currency', 70 it acquired a 'thin' Treaty Basis on the Protocol on Euro Group annexed to Lisbon Treaty.  ...  Indeed, besides Greek electorate system particularities that distorted an anti-bailout majority to a pro-bailout Government through assigning a 50-seat premium to the first party, as a point of fact, the  ... 
doi:10.5771/2193-7869-2013-4-345 fatcat:ku5ytx63qnbo5m64zqdrdkonxe

Challenges to Healthcare Reform in Crisis-Hit Greece

Maria Petmesidou
2019 e-cadernos ces  
The first part provides an overview of the Greek healthcare system shortly before the crisis, with an emphasis on the incomplete development of a national health system beset by inequalities in coverage  ...  This paper critically examines the health reform trajectory in Greece in the last decade.  ...  A few years after the restoration of democracy in the country, the introduction of a national health system took place at a critical juncture consisting in the rise to power, for the first time, of a socialist  ... 
doi:10.4000/eces.4127 fatcat:tjzc4pc6czafjpitrmejnlcobq

The Political Economy of the Greek Debt Crisis: A Tale of Two Bailouts

Silvia Ardagna, Francesco Caselli
2014 American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics  
He also criticized politicians' lack of "verbal discipline" in reference to their mixed signals in public. 29 C.  ...  In the next section, we reach a similar conclusion for the July 2011 bailout.  ... 
doi:10.1257/mac.6.4.291 fatcat:rougtfoljbatvmhqmptj5f2dny

Bankers and Brokers First: Loose Ends in the Theory of Central Bank Policymaking [chapter]

Edward J. Kane
2013 World Scientific Studies in International Economics  
Misconceptions about crises and crisis response for valuable comments on earlier drafts of this analysis.  ...  Influence-driven incentive conflict is a phenomenon that mainstream models of optimal macroeconomic and financial stabilization (e.g., Benigno and Woodford, 2003) studiously ignore.  ...  to battle for bailouts.  ... 
doi:10.1142/9789814449922_0016 fatcat:qlmw2rcwivaohpskqfqhnfmtre

Bankers and Brokers First: Loose Ends in the Theory of Central-Bank Policymaking

Edward J. Kane
2012 Social Science Research Network  
Misconceptions about crises and crisis response for valuable comments on earlier drafts of this analysis.  ...  Influence-driven incentive conflict is a phenomenon that mainstream models of optimal macroeconomic and financial stabilization (e.g., Benigno and Woodford, 2003) studiously ignore.  ...  to battle for bailouts.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1960163 fatcat:rn7bztdjdvgzhghtqnbrrchp4e

The Stability Pact: more than a minor nuisance?

Barry Eichengreen, Charles Wyplosz
1998 Economic Policy: A European Forum  
The most serious justifications, such as the systemic risk of bank crisis following a government's failure to service its debt, can be better dealt with in other ways: for example, by prudential limits  ...  -Barry Eichengreen and Charles Wyplosz S t a b i l i t y P a c t M o r e t h a n a m i n o r n u i s a n c e ?  ...  and Art. 21 of the Protocol on the European System of Central Banks).  ... 
doi:10.1111/1468-0327.00029 fatcat:hvnv2slprbdqxed62vwip5ou34
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