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6LoWPAN Fragment Forwarding

Yasuyuki Tanaka, Pascale Minet, Thomas Watteyne
2019 IEEE Communications Standards Magazine  
This article presents a new implementation technique which results in fragment forwarding without changing any of the standards.  ...  Simulation results show how, when going from per-hop reassembly to fragment forwarding, end-to-end reliability goes from 40% to 100%, memory requirements go from 1280 B to 160 B, and end-to-end latency  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Carsten Bormann and Pascal Thubert for the in-depth discussions about 6LoWPAN fragmentation, as well as Gabriel Montenegro and Samita Chakrabarti for creating  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcomstd.2019.1800029 fatcat:mk442yvi7vanvis7qjh5so3thm

A Lesson in Scaling 6LoWPAN – Minimal Fragment Forwarding in Lossy Networks [article]

Martine S. Lenders, Thomas C. Schmidt, Matthias Wählisch
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Minimal fragment forwarding is challenged by the lack of forwarding information at subsequent fragments in 6LoWPAN and thus requires additional data at nodes.  ...  This paper evaluates two forwarding strategies for fragmented datagrams in the IoT: hop-wise reassembly and a minimal approach to directly forward fragments.  ...  Minimal Fragment Forwarding We extend 6LoWPAN in GNRC to support minimal fragment forwarding. One crucial implementation choice relates to the creation of the first fragment.  ... 
arXiv:1905.08089v2 fatcat:xudonohtiffa5m4g3v5qaqda4q

Forwarding Techniques for IP Fragmented Packets in a Real 6LoWPAN Network

Alessandro Ludovici, Anna Calveras, Jordi Casademont
2011 Sensors  
In this paper we analyze different routing solutions (route over, mesh under and enhanced route over) focusing on how they forward fragments.  ...  We evaluate their performance in terms of latency and energy consumption when transmitting IP fragmented packets. All the tests have been performed in a real 6LoWPAN implementation.  ...  In this paper, we analyse both routing schemes focusing on how they forward 6LoWPAN frames. We consider 6LoWPAN communications requiring IP fragmented packets.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s110100992 pmid:22346615 pmcid:PMC3274068 fatcat:2h22ynlm3bbqnlvddhlbnbwaoq

RFC 4944: Per-Hop Fragmentation and Reassembly Issues

Georgios Z. Papadopoulos, Pascal Thubert, Sotirios Tsakalidis, Nicolas Montavont
2018 2018 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN)  
RFC 6282 updates RFC 4944, however, it does not reconsider the 6LoWPAN fragment forwarding method.  ...  fragments at the 6LoWPAN adaptation layer.  ...  Fragment Forwarding Schemes in 6LoWPAN Furthermore, 6LoWPAN comes with two Fragment Forwarding (FF) mechanisms: mesh under and route over.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cscn.2018.8581742 dblp:conf/cscn/PapadopoulosTTM18 fatcat:xmemytf3yrhaxnv74rwixixj6a

6LoWPAN fragmentation attacks and mitigation mechanisms

René Hummen, Jens Hiller, Hanno Wirtz, Martin Henze, Hossein Shafagh, Klaus Wehrle
2013 Proceedings of the sixth ACM conference on Security and privacy in wireless and mobile networks - WiSec '13  
In this paper, we provide a detailed security analysis of the 6LoWPAN fragmentation mechanism.  ...  Specifically, an attacker can mount our identified attacks by only sending a single protocol-compliant 6LoWPAN fragment.  ...  Fragment Forwarding Mechanisms 6LoWPAN supports three routing mechanisms [31, 2] . Mesh-under routing offers packet forwarding based on linklayer routing schemes.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2462096.2462107 dblp:conf/wisec/HummenHWHSW13 fatcat:ixgj67bphnaxhkxoxytv3zlrw4

Integrating 6LoWPAN Security with RPL Using The Chained Secure Mode Framework [article]

Ahmed Raoof, Chung-Horng Lung, Ashraf Matrawy
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The primary duty of the 6LoWPAN protocol is packet fragmentation and reassembly.  ...  process at the 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer  ...  Forwarding Fragments in 6LoWPAN Networks According to the 6LoWPAN standard [1] , [15] , [16] , fragments of a packet can be forwarded by intermediate nodes in one of three different ways: 1) Route-Over  ... 
arXiv:2104.14422v1 fatcat:z766weoi55a4ndf4msjbsmnnxe

Extending IP to Low-Power, Wireless Personal Area Networks

Jonathan W. Hui, David E. Culler
2008 IEEE Internet Computing  
However, 6LoWPAN radically alters the calculation by introducing an adaptation layer that enables efficient IPv6 communication over IEEE 802.15.4 LoWPAN links.  ...  IPv6/6LoWPAN Architecture The 6LoWPAN format specification defines how fragmentation, compression, and layer-two forwarding are represented in an 802.15.4 frame.  ...  Fragmentation. IPv6 packets are fragmented into multiple link-level frames to accommodate the IPv6 minimum MTU requirement. Layer-two forwarding.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mic.2008.79 fatcat:rae6mypy6fhf3b2munywniiq2y

Route-over vs mesh-under routing in 6LoWPAN

Aminul Haque Chowdhury, Muhammad Ikram, Hyon-Soo Cha, Hassen Redwan, S. M. Saif Shams, Ki-Hyung Kim, Seung-Wha Yoo
2009 Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Connecting the World Wirelessly - IWCMC '09  
Implementation of the adaptation layer enhances the routing/forwarding decision of packets both network and adaptation layers.  ...  Transmission of IPv6 packets over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) was considered nearly impractical once.  ...  In mesh-under scheme, routing and forwarding are performed at link layer based on 802.15.4 frame or the 6LoWPAN header.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1582379.1582643 dblp:conf/iwcmc/ChowdhuryICRSKY09 fatcat:ux5hzelxdzd4ni3yflagy6qa2u

Modeling and Performance Analysis of Route-Over and Mesh-Under Routing Schemes in 6LoWPAN under Error-Prone Channel Condition

Tsung-Han Lee, Hung-Chi Chu, Lin-Huang Chang, Hung-Shiou Chiang, Yen-Wen Lin
2013 Journal of Applied Mathematics  
In addition, two selected routing schemes, mesh-under and route-over routing schemes, are also proposed in 6LoWPAN to forward IP fragmentations under IEEE 802.15.4 radio link.  ...  6LoWPAN technology has attracted extensive attention recently.  ...  However, the retransmission executes only in onehop distance if there is any fragment lost in this forwarding process.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2013/242483 fatcat:o46qq5l5zncmhkukwjorsrtixq

A study on Need of Adaptation Layer in 6LoWPAN Protocol Stack

Ruchi Garg, Sanjay Sharma
2017 International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies  
The necessity of this additional layer is justified by explaining the major functions like header compression, fragmentation and reassembly of packets and packet routing handled by it.  ...  This paper contributes in the detailed analysis of need of adaptation layer in 6LoWPAN protocol stack.  ...  If packet size is greater, then it will fragment it and forward to MAC layer.  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijwmt.2017.03.05 fatcat:f7mjmpa365blteqd5kaednds4i

Enhancing 6LoWPAN schemes to support priority driven routing

Ranabir Saha, Suman Sankar Bhunia, Nandini Mukherjee
2015 2015 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommuncations Systems (ANTS)  
Internet of Things(IoT) has become an emerging area of research. 6LoWPAN is introduced to connect large number of things which are nothing but sensors of different capabilities.  ...  In 6LoWPAN, there are mainly two routing schemes, named as route-over (assembly mode) and mesh-under (direct mode), based on which layer is involved during routing decisions.  ...  The adaptation layer treats each incoming fragment indifferently. When a fragment is forwarded, mesh header is appended at the beginning of the 6LoWPAN header by the adaptation layer.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ants.2015.7413652 dblp:conf/IEEEants/SahaBM15 fatcat:7nn4z3cy5je7vdp63fkb23xjgq

Route-Over Forwarding Techniques in a 6LoWPAN

Andreas Weigel, Martin Ringwelski, Volker Turau, Andreas Timm-Giel
2014 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Mobile Communications and Applications  
6LoWPAN fragments before the whole datagram has arrived.  ...  ., routing at the IP-layer, there are two main choices for any 6LoWPAN implementation with regard to datagram fragmentation: Hop-by-hop assembly or a cross-layered direct mode, which forwards individual  ...  Related Work Different forwarding techniques for 6LoWPAN for IPv6 datagrams without and with fragmentation were evaluated by Ludovici et al. [6] .  ... 
doi:10.4108/mca.2.5.e5 fatcat:itsm6a2wlnh5bdxs6l4nrrk5ay

Route-Over Forwarding Techniques in a 6LoWPAN [chapter]

Andreas Weigel, Martin Ringwelski, Volker Turau, Andreas Timm-Giel
2013 Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering  
6LoWPAN fragments before the whole datagram has arrived.  ...  ., routing at the IP-layer, there are two main choices for any 6LoWPAN implementation with regard to datagram fragmentation: Hop-by-hop assembly or a cross-layered direct mode, which forwards individual  ...  Related Work Different forwarding techniques for 6LoWPAN for IPv6 datagrams without and with fragmentation were evaluated by Ludovici et al. [6] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-04277-0_10 fatcat:ikmccv2xrzhdjlr4s4jerb5k4a

Design and construction of a wireless sensor and actuator network gateway based on 6LoWPAN

B. da Silva Campos, J. J. P. C. Rodrigues, L. M. L. Oliveira, L. D. P. Mendes, E. F. Nakamura, C. M. S. Figueiredo
2011 2011 IEEE EUROCON - International Conference on Computer as a Tool  
IPv6 over Low-power Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs) enables IPv6 support for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), making them connectable through the Internet.  ...  The 6LoWPAN adaptation layer is attached to the virtual interface aiming to perform compression or fragmentation tasks before forwarding the packet into the WSN.  ...  Moreover, it fragments IPv6 packets larger than 128 bytes (IEEE 802.15.4 MTU) before forwarding data to the WSN.  ... 
doi:10.1109/eurocon.2011.5929390 dblp:conf/eurocon/CamposROMNF11 fatcat:4nj4d2x5rndnhpijmeebidiuxi

Design and Implementation of SDN-based 6LBR with QoS Mechanism over Heterogeneous WSN and Internet

2017 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
The proposed SDN-based 6LBR communicating between WSNs and the Internet will bring forward the requirements of end-to-end QoS with bandwidth guarantee.  ...  The Software Defined Network (SDN) is a new architecture of network decoupling the data and control planes, and using the logical centralized control to manage the forwarding issues in large-scale networks  ...  In this research, we conducted the measurements for 6LoWPAN packets with different data sizes from 1 fragment to 14 fragments.  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2017.02.025 fatcat:nl35zqj7lvdxzk6vajil2upkua
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