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3D Morphable Face Models – Past, Present and Future [article]

Bernhard Egger, William A. P. Smith, Ayush Tewari, Stefanie Wuhrer, Michael Zollhoefer, Thabo Beeler, Florian Bernard, Timo Bolkart, Adam Kortylewski, Sami Romdhani, Christian Theobalt, Volker Blanz (+1 others)
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we provide a detailed survey of 3D Morphable Face Models over the 20 years since they were first proposed.  ...  We also look ahead, identifying unsolved challenges, proposing directions for future research and highlighting the broad range of current and future applications.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This survey paper was initiated at the Dagstuhl Seminar 19102 on 3D Morphable Models ] and contains ideas resulting from discussions at this seminar.  ... 
arXiv:1909.01815v2 fatcat:g3wtdppy7ze3dildi6a3siq4qy

Gaussian mixture 3D morphable face model

Paul Koppen, Zhen-Hua Feng, Josef Kittler, Muhammad Awais, William Christmas, Xiao-Jun Wu, He-Feng Yin
2018 Pattern Recognition  
In the past, the widespread adoption of 3D face models has been prevented by the cost of 3D face sensor technology.  ...  3D Morphable Face Models (3DMM) have been used in pattern recognition for some time now.  ...  3D morphable face model.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2017.09.006 fatcat:dbscz7v2k5elfjwyo4hdy3pjia

Efficient 3D morphable face model fitting

Guosheng Hu, Fei Yan, Josef Kittler, William Christmas, Chi Ho Chan, Zhenhua Feng, Patrik Huber
2017 Pattern Recognition  
3D face reconstruction of shape and skin texture from a single 2D image can be performed using a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM) in an analysis-by-synthesis approach.  ...  Such a scenario would involve a perspective camera to describe the geometric projection from 3D to 2D, and the Phong model to characterise illumination.  ...  The 3D morphable face model (3DMM) [2] encapsulates prior knowledge about human faces that can be used for this purpose, and therefore potentially it is a good tool for 3D face reconstruction.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2017.02.007 fatcat:mpsnlvokmrehpiw2ylgzu3ik2q

MeshGAN: Non-linear 3D Morphable Models of Faces [article]

Shiyang Cheng, Michael Bronstein, Yuxiang Zhou, Irene Kotsia, Maja Pantic, Stefanos Zafeiriou
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Both quantitative and qualitative results are provided to show that MeshGAN can be used to generate high-fidelity 3D face with rich identities and expressions.  ...  Certain GAN architectures and training methods have demonstrated exceptional performance in generating realistic synthetic images (in particular, of human faces).  ...  PCA was used for building statistical 3D shape model (i.e., 3D Morphable Models (3DMMs)) in many works [54, 53, 7] .  ... 
arXiv:1903.10384v1 fatcat:7pmkghmf3zhffpgbdipxvvkwcy

Sparse Photometric 3D Face Reconstruction Guided by Morphable Models [article]

Xuan Cao, Zhang Chen, Anpei Chen, Xin Chen, Cen Wang, Jingyi Yu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We present a novel 3D face reconstruction technique that leverages sparse photometric stereo (PS) and latest advances on face registration/modeling from a single image.  ...  We observe that 3D morphable faces approach provides a reasonable geometry proxy for light position calibration.  ...  Conclusions and Future Work We have presented a novel sparse photometric stereo technique for reconstructing very high quality 3D faces with fine details.  ... 
arXiv:1711.10870v1 fatcat:6xbl7svnovdkzb4cmnf4b46fga

Sparse Photometric 3D Face Reconstruction Guided by Morphable Models

Xuan Cao, Zhang Chen, Anpei Chen, Xin Chen, Shiying Li, Jingyi Yu
2018 2018 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition  
Abstract We present a novel 3D face reconstruction technique that leverages sparse photometric stereo (PS) and latest advances on face registration / modeling from a single image.  ...  We observe that 3D morphable faces approach [21] provides a reasonable geometry proxy for light position calibration.  ...  Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Sören Schwertfeger, Laurent Kneip, Andre Rosendo, Qilei Jiang, Mario Eduardo Villanueva for cooperation of capturing face data.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr.2018.00487 dblp:conf/cvpr/CaoCCCLY18 fatcat:2wmhk3c5k5hfjkpca5z2qwswim

Support Vector Machine Components - Based Face Recognition Technique using 3D Morphable Modeling Method

Mukundhan Srinivasan, Nivas Ravichandran
2013 International Journal of Future Computer and Communication  
In this paper, two advanced method are used to provide pose and illumination invariant FR. The 3D morphable model is implemented to generate 3D face images from our very own training database.  ...  We present a novel solution towards the problem of pose and illumination variation of face detection (FD) and face recognition (FR).  ...  and future work.  ... 
doi:10.7763/ijfcc.2013.v2.218 fatcat:lhm4mgp4anbgnegttgvf7dc4mi

Face Identification by Fitting a 3D Morphable Model Using Linear Shape and Texture Error Functions [chapter]

Sami Romdhani, Volker Blanz, Thomas Vetter
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Face analysis from a single image is performed by recovering the shape and textures parameters of a 3D Morphable Model in an analysis-by-synthesis fashion.  ...  This paper presents a novel algorithm aiming at analysis and identification of faces viewed from different poses and illumination conditions.  ...  Acknowledgement: We thank Simon Baker and Ralph Gross for providing us with PIE, a great face image database and for the support they gave us in the use of it.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-47979-1_1 fatcat:t6t4cpw5jrbv3cdmqtcsw6275i

Dictionary Integration Using 3D Morphable Face Models for Pose-Invariant Collaborative-Representation-Based Classification

Xiaoning Song, Zhen-Hua Feng, Guosheng Hu, Josef Kittler, Xiao-Jun Wu
2018 IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security  
The paper presents a dictionary integration algorithm using 3D morphable face models (3DMM) for poseinvariant collaborative-representation-based face classification.  ...  To this end, we first fit a 3DMM to the 2D face images of a dictionary to reconstruct the 3D shape and texture of each image.  ...  models [15] - [17] and the use of 3D face models [18] - [20] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tifs.2018.2833052 fatcat:uhma6ovzjvcyhkb5p7owatysve

Towards Monocular Neural Facial Depth Estimation: Past, Present, and Future

Faisal Khan, Muhammad Ali Farooq, Waseem Shariff, Shubhajit Basak, Peter Corcoran
2022 IEEE Access  
Implementation details of how neural depth networks work and their corresponding evaluation matrices are presented and explained.  ...  as a foundation for a proposed model that is utilized.  ...  Many methods for estimating face depth have been presented in recent years, notably 3D from stereo replicating [4] , 3D morphable model-based methods [5] , [6] , shape from shading (SfS) [5, 6] , shape  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2022.3158950 fatcat:q3ocwmmvpzhmbm4jamqackj4em

A survey on face detection in the wild: Past, present and future

Stefanos Zafeiriou, Cha Zhang, Zhengyou Zhang
2015 Computer Vision and Image Understanding  
Finally, we survey the main databases used for the evaluation of face detection algorithms and recent benchmarking efforts, and discuss the future of face detection.  ...  These techniques are roughly categorized into two general schemes: rigid templates, learned mainly via boosting based methods or by the application of deep neural networks, and deformable models that describe  ...  Recently it was demonstrated that it is possible to train a state-of-the-art face detection system using an adaptation of Viola-Jones algorithm using only artificially generated data from a facial 3D Morphable  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2015.03.015 fatcat:d7ehtad5dnf5td5kvlbunp5swe

3D Face Reconstruction Techniques: Passive Methods

2019 International journal of recent technology and engineering  
Finally, possible future areas for improvement in terms of reconstructions are presented for the benefit of researchers.  ...  In the recent literature, 3D face reconstruction received wide interest and has become one of the significant areas of research. 3D face reconstruction provides in depth details on geometrics, texture  ...  One of the breakthroughs in the 3D morphable model used in 3D face reconstruction was in 1999 Blanz and T. Vetter [15] created database of 3D morphable models.  ... 
doi:10.35940/ijrte.b3152.078219 fatcat:5x2422hs45bgfcl43qreodsgzu

Real-Time 3D Face Fitting and Texture Fusion on In-the-Wild Videos

Patrik Huber, Philipp Kopp, William Christmas, Matthias Ratsch, Josef Kittler
2017 IEEE Signal Processing Letters  
With the use of a cascaded-regressor based face tracking and a 3D Morphable Face Model shape fitting, we obtain a semi-dense 3D face shape.  ...  We present a fully automatic approach to real-time 3D face reconstruction from monocular in-the-wild videos.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is in part supported by the Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing of the University of Surrey, UK.  ... 
doi:10.1109/lsp.2016.2643284 fatcat:i5xwoghdfvhphjdrm5jolmvk2m

What computational model provides the best explanation of face representations in the primate brain? [article]

Le Chang, Bernhard Egger, Thomas Vetter, Doris Tsao
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Here, we recorded responses of cells in the most anterior face patch AM to a large set of real face images, and compared a large number of models for explaining neural responses.  ...  A previous study reported that single face patch neurons encode axes of a generative model called the 'active appearance' model (Chang and Tsao, 2017), which transforms 50-d feature vectors separately  ...  We are grateful to Nicole Schweers for help with animal training and MingPo Yang for help with implementing the CORnets.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.06.07.111930 fatcat:kasnxsxm55dn7c4klearlriqa4

Exchanging Faces in Images

Volker Blanz, Kristina Scherbaum, Thomas Vetter, Hans-Peter Seidel
2004 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
We present a system that exchanges faces across large differences in viewpoint and illumination.  ...  Pasting somebody's face into an existing image with traditional photo retouching and digital image processing tools has only been possible if both images show the face from the same viewpoint and with  ...  A Morphable Models of 3D Faces The Morphable Model of 3D faces [VP97, BV99] is a vector space of 3D shapes and textures spanned by a set of examples.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2004.00799.x fatcat:ccla2actnfbaxahdjk4vf7nq3u
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