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An AI Based Super Nodes Selection Algorithm in BlockChain Networks [article]

Jianwen Chen, Kai Duan, Rumin Zhang, Liaoyuan Zeng, Wenyi Wang
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Experimental results demonstrate that our framework combines the advantages of Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake and Delegated-Proof-of-Stake by avoiding complicated hash operation and monopoly.  ...  The state-of-the-art protocols include Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake and Delegated-Proof-of-Stake.  ...  There are several representative methods recently, including Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS).  ... 
arXiv:1808.00216v1 fatcat:g2it7x2rvzho5duerjmqzq3y34

Consensus in the Age of Blockchains [article]

Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Mustafa Al-Bassam, Sarah Azouvi, Patrick McCorry, Sarah Meiklejohn, George Danezis
2017 arXiv   pre-print
After first discussing key themes in classical consensus protocols, we describe: first protocols based on proof-of-work (PoW), second proof-of-X (PoX) protocols that replace PoW with more energy-efficient  ...  We address this challenge by conducting a systematic and comprehensive study of blockchain consensus protocols.  ...  A number of recent systems have provably secure proof-of-stake protocols [50, 52, 83] .  ... 
arXiv:1711.03936v2 fatcat:va2pvautcvf4zdt5marnsornvi

A Survey of Distributed Consensus Protocols for Blockchain Networks [article]

Yang Xiao, Ning Zhang, Wenjing Lou, Y. Thomas Hou
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Among various core components, consensus protocol is the defining technology behind the security and performance of blockchain.  ...  Since the inception of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies and the underlying blockchain technology have attracted an increasing interest from both academia and industry.  ...  Yonggang Wen, and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on this paper. This work was supported in part by US National Science Foundation under grants CNS-1916902, CNS-1916926.  ... 
arXiv:1904.04098v3 fatcat:gegtpion3jditfhavbgprmfwnm

Blockchain-Empowered Mobile Edge Intelligence, Machine Learning and Secure Data Sharing [chapter]

Yao Du, Shuxiao Miao, Zitian Tong, Victoria Lemieux, Zehua Wang
2021 Blockchain Potential in AI [Working Title]  
learning, secure data sharing, and basic introduction of post-quantum blockchain.  ...  However, those distributed frameworks of edge intelligence also introduce some new challenges, such as user privacy and data security.  ...  This mechanism is often called proof-of-work (PoW) and it costs a lot of power and electricity.  ... 
doi:10.5772/intechopen.96618 fatcat:tjon4elghrcq5e5lfsfmyx2srm

Layer 2 Blockchain Scaling: a Survey [article]

Cosimo Sguanci, Roberto Spatafora, Andrea Mario Vergani
2021 arXiv   pre-print
analysis of each solution is based on how it affects five key aspects of blockchain technology and Layer II: scalability, security, decentralization, privacy, fees and micropayments (the last two are  ...  The structure of the work is based on three major sections. In particular, the first one is an introductory part about the technology, the scalability issue and Layer II as a solution.  ...  proof-of-work blockchains.  ... 
arXiv:2107.10881v1 fatcat:nymuegrpq5givl7rmlhzhum524

TwinsCoin

Tuyet Duong, Alexander Chepurnoy, Lei Fan, Hong-Sheng Zhou
2018 Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Blockchains, Cryptocurrencies, and Contracts - BCC '18  
We design and implement TwinsCoin, the rst cryptocurrency based on a provably secure and scalable public blockchain design using both proof-of-work and proof-of-stake mechanisms.  ...  Di erent from the proof-ofwork based Bitcoin, our construction uses two types of resources, computing power and coins (i.e., stake). e blockchain in our system is more robust than that in a pure proof-of-work  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dmitry Meshkov for helping with coding and testing the system.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3205230.3205233 dblp:conf/ccs/DuongCFZ18 fatcat:tmv4xsibbrcclnqpro6bzhwwum

SoK of Used Cryptography in Blockchain [article]

Mayank Raikwar, Danilo Gligoroski, Katina Kralevska
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The underlying fundaments of blockchain are cryptography and cryptographic concepts that provide reliable and secure decentralized solutions.  ...  Although many recent papers study the use-cases of blockchain in different industrial areas, such as finance, health care, legal relations, IoT, information security, and consensus building systems, only  ...  In the case of Ethereum, a hard fork will occur when it will migrate from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake.  ... 
arXiv:1906.08609v3 fatcat:l62esrum3bhmfcdxzpx3h3he4e

Blockchain-Based Lightweight Trust Management in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

May Thura Lwin, Jinhyuk Yim, Young-Bae Ko
2020 Sensors  
As a securely distributed and trusted platform, blockchain solves most of the security issues in the OLSR, in which every node is performing the security operation individually and in a repetitive manner  ...  The proposed scheme provides the distributed trust framework for routing nodes in MANETs that is tamper-proof via blockchain.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20030698 pmid:32012774 pmcid:PMC7038462 fatcat:qsti5vcqhfh5vgf6katjfwuaiy

A Taxonomy of Blockchain Consensus Methods

Jeff Nijsse, Alan Litchfield
2020 Cryptography  
Blockchain implementations are split between consensus algorithms requiring proof of resource and those that use majority voting to update the ledger.  ...  However, there appears to be a degree of misunderstanding about how consensus is applied across blockchains.  ...  The acronyms used in the table are, in order of appearance: Po Proof-of- PoET Proof of Elapsed Time PoW Proof-of-Work BFT Byzantine Fault Tolerant PoS Proof-of-Stake SMaRt State Machine Replication PBFT  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography4040032 fatcat:5odh2nuv7veypo7cahu4tv5tui

Reinshard: An optimally sharded dual-blockchain for concurrency resolution [article]

Vishal Sharma, Zengpeng Li, Pawel Szalachowski, Teik Guan Tan, Jianying Zhou
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Inspired by hybrid Proof-of-Work/Proof-of-Stake (PoW/PoS), like Ethereum, hybrid consensus and 2-hop blockchain, we propose Reinshard, a new blockchain that inherits the properties of hybrid consensus  ...  The applicability of Reinshard is demonstrated through security and experimental evaluations.  ...  One of the examples of a hybrid blockchain is 2-hop blockchain [20] , which is a provably secure and scalable public blockchain. It uses PoW and PoS chain-pair as its operational principles.  ... 
arXiv:2109.07316v1 fatcat:35eypdkbb5bzvfeq3sp6wyxkvm

BLOWN: A Blockchain Protocol for Single-Hop Wireless Networks under Adversarial SINR [article]

Minghui Xu, Feng Zhao, Yifei Zou, Chunchi Liu, Xiuzhen Cheng, Falko Dressler
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose a novel consensus protocol named Proof-of-Channel (PoC) leveraging the natural properties of wireless communications, and develop a permissioned BLOWN protocol (BLOckchain protocol  ...  Known as a distributed ledger technology (DLT), blockchain has attracted much attention due to its properties such as decentralization, security, immutability and transparency, and its potential of servicing  ...  Program of Ministry of Education of China under grant 2020KJ010301, and the Key Science and Technology Project of Guangxi under grant AB19110044.  ... 
arXiv:2103.08361v3 fatcat:5jhe4y5ko5dxzdj5byp7dfk7qq

Efficient Blockchain System based on Proof of Segmented Work

Maruf Monem, Alif Ahmad, Jumana, Rashad Ahmed, Hossain Arif
2020 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP)  
are Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS).  ...  three of these algorithms, namely Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Elapsed time (PoET).  ... 
doi:10.1109/tensymp50017.2020.9231027 fatcat:oosdnw2mfnejbfmgah6ii5r6jq

Blockchain Design for an Embedded System

Sara Falcone, John Zhang, Agnes Cameron, Amira Abdel-Rahman
2019 Ledger  
A consensus mechanism, Proof of Validity, is introduced to allow the effort of mining blocks to correlate with the desired tasks the robotic system was designed for.  ...  Options, trade-offs and considerations for implementing blockchain technology on an embedded system with wireless radio communication are explored and discussed.  ...  Robertson and W. Langford for their feedback and suggestions on this project. This work was supported by the Center for Bits and Atoms research consortia; thank you!  ... 
doi:10.5195/ledger.2019.172 fatcat:hc5hlodqongbbeuuuduzqykvrm

Survey of Consensus Algorithms for Proof of Stake in Blockchain

Lina Ge, Jie Wang, Guifen Zhang, Mohammad Ayoub Khan
2022 Security and Communication Networks  
This paper classifies the improvement schemes of proof of stake (PoS) into three categories: PoS-based consensus algorithms, PoS- and PoW-based consensus algorithms, and PoS- and BFT-based consensus algorithms  ...  As the core of blockchain technology, the consensus algorithm directly affects the security, stability, and decentralisation of the blockchain and numerous other important characteristics.  ...  Acknowledgments is work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 61862007) and the Innovation Project of Guangxi Minzu University Graduate Education (gxun-chxps202081  ... 
doi:10.1155/2022/2812526 fatcat:s7bg6fl3vjdilaaullpzkavt2u

Blockchain-based Traffic Event Validation and Trust Verification for VANETs

Yao-Tsung Yang, Li-Der Chou, Chia-Wei Tseng, Fan-Hsun Tseng, Chien-Chang Liu
2019 IEEE Access  
INDEX TERMS Blockchain, event validation, proof-of-event consensus, trust verification, vehicular ad-hoc networks. 30868 2169-3536  ...  This paper proposes a proof-of-event consensus concept applicable to vehicular networks rather than proof-ofwork or proof-of-authority approaches.  ...  The most common mechanisms include Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Stake (PoS), Proof-of-Authority (PoA), Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT), etc. [15] - [17] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2903202 fatcat:b2xwkksklffoxowmzju6klg7ie
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