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Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

Jatin G. Vaidya, Brian Knutson, Daniel S. O'Leary, Robert I. Block, Vincent Magnotta, Amanda Bruce
2013 PLoS ONE  
In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards.  ...  Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Julie Koeppel and Rose Nguyen for assistance with data collection and Eugene Zeien input on data analysis. Author Contributions  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058708 pmid:23544046 pmcid:PMC3609767 fatcat:7gypy2ayejbmdoy3aoq554baoi

The effect of counterfactual information on outcome value coding in medial prefrontal and cingulate cortex: from an absolute to a relative neural code [article]

Doris Pischedda, Stefano Palminteri, Giorgio Coricelli
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
(relative coding), rather than being invariant across contexts (absolute coding).  ...  Moreover, we showed that increasing feedback information induced a switch from absolute to relative coding.  ...  Participants had to choose one of the symbols and to press the corresponding button with their left or right thumb, within 3,000ms.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.01.08.898841 fatcat:mbo5j5lknzcrbghowslanl7k2u

Learning relative values in the striatum induces violations of normative decision making

Tilmann A. Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Gerhard Jocham
2017 Nature Communications  
Striatal activity exhibits the characteristics of a prediction error used to update such relative option values.  ...  Instead, behaviour is compatible with the decisions of an agent learning how good an option is relative to an option with which it had previously been paired.  ...  Fischer for helpful discussions on the data and the manuscript, and R. Burnside for help with language editing.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ncomms16033 pmid:28631734 pmcid:PMC5481835 fatcat:uyufroaqyfenlhxrbvhmqbxefm

Motor Preparatory Activity in Posterior Parietal Cortex is Modulated by Subjective Absolute Value

Asha Iyer, Axel Lindner, Igor Kagan, Richard A. Andersen, Leslie Ungerleider
2010 PLoS Biology  
In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss) conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed  ...  At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion.  ...  Acknowledgments We want to thank all members of the Andersen Lab and the Caltech Brain Imaging Center for their support, in particular Antonio Rangel, John O'Doherty, Hilke Plassmann, Kerstin Preuschoff  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000444 pmid:20689802 pmcid:PMC2914636 fatcat:konh6gyenvekllzyhhljxci4ai

Inpatient Medicine [chapter]

Laura Bateman, Kevin Conrad
2016 Absolute Hospital Medicine Review  
Examination of ventricular volumes comparing right to left may be the best measurement for predicting outcomes. Reference Sirven JI, Wingerchuk DM, Drazkowski JF, Lyons MK, Zimmerman RS.  ...  Diagnosis of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia requires the measurement of the drug in the serum or urine.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23748-0_1 fatcat:sdniujrumvhz3ljvi3nxvvovl4

The influence of status on satisfaction with relative rewards

Konstanze Albrecht, Emma von Essen, Klaus Fliessbach, Armin Falk
2013 Frontiers in Psychology  
Our findings suggest that relative social status has important implications for the acceptance of income inequalities. The influence of status on satisfaction with relative rewards. Front.  ...  In contrast, when receiving an advantageous payoff, status does not affect satisfaction.  ...  Konstanze Albrecht thanks the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant for financial support.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00804 pmid:24198802 pmcid:PMC3812870 fatcat:c3rk3ynouve2vm57t3jpietmfm

Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

Auria Albacete, Fernando Contreras, Clara Bosque, Ester Gilabert, Ángela Albiach, José M. Menchón, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola
2016 Frontiers in Psychology  
At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder.  ...  Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N = 43), in comparison with schizophrenia  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Cristian Tebé from the Statistical Assessment Service at Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL for his role in statistical analyses, and all of the study participants  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00665 pmid:27242583 pmcid:PMC4860705 fatcat:ehdorcfknfgsrpzxx2ecg2wqoa

Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Derived Relative Hypoperfusion Volume After Ischemic Stroke Response

R. T.F. Cheung, P. A. Barber, S. M. Davis
1999 Stroke  
Second, SPECT-derived relative hypoperfusion volume at the acute, subacute, or chronic phase of ischemic stroke was found to be significantly correlated with clinical outcome measures and final infarct  ...  The proportion of patients with a favorable outcome (good recovery or moderate disability) relative to that of patients with an unfavourable outcome (severe disability, persistent vegetative state, or  ... 
doi:10.1161/01.str.30.8.1733 pmid:10436132 fatcat:f4c5bdvrlnexldwoxwfe7t4ymq

Neurons in the macaque orbitofrontal cortex code relative preference of both rewarding and aversive outcomes

Takayuki Hosokawa, Keichiro Kato, Masato Inoue, Akichika Mikami
2007 Neuroscience research  
We found that many OFC neurons showed responses to both the ES-predicting stimulus and the reward-predicting stimulus, and they code relative preference of not only the reward outcome but also the aversive  ...  This result suggests that the same group of OFC neurons code both reward and aversive information in the form of relative preference. #  ...  Acknowledgement This study was partially supported by a Grant in Aid for Scientifically Promoted Research (No. 10CE2005).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neures.2006.12.003 pmid:17239463 fatcat:mnzzogefkragfmeziuk2vomnwu

Are individual differences quantitative or qualitative? An integrated behavioral and fMRI MIMIC approach

Jacqueline N. Zadelaar, Wouter D. Weeda, Lourens J. Waldorp, Anna C.K. Van Duijvenvoorde, Neeltje E. Blankenstein, Hilde M. Huizenga
2019 NeuroImage  
We propose the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of combined behavioral and fMRI data to determine whether such differences are quantitative or qualitative in nature.  ...  We advocate using the MIMIC model to empirically determine, rather than assume, the nature of individual differences in combined behavioral and fMRI datasets.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Helen Steingroever for checking equations and Joost Agelink van Rentergem Zandvliet for R and Mplus assistance.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116058 pmid:31352125 fatcat:xogllmtgrjaxrme3kgn2774bqy

Stimulating Memory: Reviewing Interventions Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Enhance or Restore Memory Abilities

Connor J. Phipps, Daniel L. Murman, David E. Warren
2021 Brain Sciences  
Heterogeneity of protocol design, rTMS parameters, and outcome measures present significant challenges to interpretation and reproducibility.  ...  In this review, we first discuss the current state of the literature on memory modulation with rTMS, then offer a commentary on developments in cognitive neuroscience that are relevant to rTMS interventions  ...  As with the independent variables, we noted that outcome measures could similarly be divided into changes in cognitive abilities (various) and changes in brain variables (structure and/or function).  ... 
doi:10.3390/brainsci11101283 pmid:34679348 pmcid:PMC8533697 fatcat:kmdk44wq3fbsdl24kbud2647fi

Articulatory motor planning and timbral idiosyncrasies as underlying mechanisms of instrument-specific absolute pitch in expert musicians

Niels Chr Hansen, Lindsey Reymore
2021 PLoS ONE  
While absolute pitch, or the ability to identify musical pitches without external reference, is rare even in professional musicians and is understood to have a genetic component, anecdotal evidence and  ...  The outcome of these experiments may provide support for the theory that some individuals have ISAP and that the underlying mechanisms of this ability may rely on the perception of subtle timbral/intonational  ...  The left panel depicts accuracy whereas the right panel depicts absolute semitone error values for incorrect responses.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247136 pmid:33606800 pmcid:PMC7894932 fatcat:xxhllojytvdthcpwfzakmijada

Love to Win or Hate to Lose? Asymmetry of Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Predicts Sensitivity to Reward versus Punishment

Rachel Tomer, Heleen A. Slagter, Bradley T. Christian, Andrew S. Fox, Carlye R. King, Dhanabalan Murali, Mark A. Gluck, Richard J. Davidson
2014 Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience  
We examined the hypothesis that in healthy participants this motivational bias (assessed by selfreport and by a probabilistic learning task that allows direct comparison of the relative sensitivity to  ...  ■ Humans show consistent differences in the extent to which their behavior reflects a bias toward appetitive approach-related behavior or avoidance of aversive stimuli [Elliot, A. J.  ...  aversive outcomes is predicted by relatively higher binding in the right hemisphere.  ... 
doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00544 pmid:24345165 pmcid:PMC3972269 fatcat:ibiapb56zjhirllsme5ebcqwo4

Participation in contact or collision sports in athletes with epilepsy, genetic risk factors, structural brain lesions, or history of craniotomy

Vincent J Miele, Julian E Bailes, Neil A Martin
2006 Neurosurgical Focus  
Finally, the ability of athletes to participate in contact or collision sports after undergoing craniotomies for traumatic or congenital abnormalities is evaluated.  ...  Despite a plethora of guidelines for return to play following mild head injury, a discussion of when and if an athlete should be allowed to participate in contact or collision sports if he or she sustains  ...  If an athlete is barred from competition in the US, he or she may choose to participate outside of this country.  ... 
pmid:17112199 fatcat:irfnpm3jtbhzpd2ivk3yctapma

Participation in contact or collision sports in athletes with epilepsy, genetic risk factors, structural brain lesions, or history of craniotomy

Vincent J. Miele, Julian E. Bailes, Neil A. Martin
2006 Neurosurgical Focus  
Finally, the ability of athletes to participate in contact or collision sports after undergoing craniotomies for traumatic or congenital abnormalities is evaluated.  ...  Finally, the ability of athletes to participate in contact or collision sports after undergoing craniotomies for traumatic or congenital abnormalities is evaluated.  ...  If an athlete is barred from competition in the US, he or she may choose to participate outside of this country.  ... 
doi:10.3171/foc.2006.21.4.10 fatcat:yltqoempsfdovonxhh6mdk744e
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