IA Scholar Query: The Power of Counting Logics on Restricted Classes of Finite Structures.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440A Survey on Concept Drift in Process Mining
https://scholar.archive.org/work/hvmkupdorzf5df4tts42gzykjm
Concept drift in process mining (PM) is a challenge as classical methods assume processes are in a steady-state, i.e., events share the same process version. We conducted a systematic literature review on the intersection of these areas, and thus, we review concept drift in PM and bring forward a taxonomy of existing techniques for drift detection and online PM for evolving environments. Existing works depict that (i) PM still primarily focuses on offline analysis, and (ii) the assessment of concept drift techniques in processes is cumbersome due to the lack of common evaluation protocol, datasets, and metrics.Denise Maria Vecino Sato, Sheila Cristiana De Freitas, Jean Paul Barddal, Edson Emilio Scalabrinwork_hvmkupdorzf5df4tts42gzykjmSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT2 Konzeptuelle Rahmung
https://scholar.archive.org/work/gs5wdhwlxjdxlc7figxpjyrfvi
Mithilfe grundlegender Vorbemerkungen soll nun ein eigenständiger konzeptueller Rahmen aufgebaut werden, der es erlaubt, realen ökonomischen Phänomenen gerecht zu werden. Im Wesentlichen speist sich dieser Rahmen aus drei Strängen: Zunächst ist er aus den konkreten Forschungserfahrungen sowohl im Feld, wie auch in der interpretativen Auseinandersetzung mit dem zusammengetragenen empirischen Material, dabei insbesondere im Schritt der Typenbildung, entstanden. Weiterhin hat der Forschungsansatz durch eine Auseinandersetzung mit den paradigmatischen Grundzügen des Institutionalismus 5 und sozialwissenschaftlichen Praxistheorien profitiert. Schließlich hat er eine philosophische Fundierung in der phänomenologischen Tradition und dem kritischen Realismus gewonnen (vgl. dazu Poitras 2021). Der konzeptuelle Rahmen wird nun von seiner wissenschaftstheoretischen Fundierung (Abschnitt 2.1) über seine Kernelemente (Abschnitte 2.2-2.4) bis hin zu einer methodisch-methodologischen Operationalisierung als praxeologische Institutionenforschung (Kapitel 3) eingeführt. Als Anschauungsbeispiel dient dabei stets das im Rahmen dieser Arbeit interessierende Thema von studentischen Selbst-und Weltverhältnissen. LEBENSWELT, SINNSTIFTUNG UND DIE LEBENSWELTLICHE LÜCKE Als entscheidende Kategorie des vorliegenden Forschungsansatzes wird zunächst der Begriff der Lebenswelt eingeführt. Die Lebenswelt wird hier mit Bezug auf die phä-5 Ich unterscheide hier dezidiert nicht zwischen originärem oder 'altem' ökonomischem Institutionalismus in der Tradition insb.work_gs5wdhwlxjdxlc7figxpjyrfviSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTRevisiting Iso-Recursive Subtyping
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vfmzcu77zvdkbhgmeocsrubsde
The Amber rules are well-known and widely used for subtyping iso-recursive types. They were first briefly and informally introduced in 1985 by Cardelli in a manuscript describing the Amber language. Despite their use over many years, important aspects of the metatheory of the iso-recursive style Amber rules have not been studied in depth or turn out to be quite challenging to formalize. This article aims to revisit the problem of subtyping iso-recursive types. We start by introducing a novel declarative specification for Amber-style iso-recursive subtyping. Informally, the specification states that two recursive types are subtypes if all their finite unfoldings are subtypes . The Amber rules are shown to have equivalent expressive power to this declarative specification. We then show two variants of sound , complete and decidable algorithmic formulations of subtyping with respect to the declarative specification, which employ the idea of double unfoldings . Compared to the Amber rules, the double unfolding rules have the advantage of: (1) being modular; (2) not requiring reflexivity to be built in; (3) leading to an easy proof of transitivity of subtyping; and (4) being easily applicable to subtyping relations that are not antisymmetric (such as subtyping relations with record types). This work sheds new insights on the theory of subtyping iso-recursive types, and the new rules based on double unfoldings have important advantages over the original Amber rules involving recursive types. All results are mechanically formalized in the Coq theorem prover.Yaoda Zhou, Jinxu Zhao, Bruno C. D. S. Oliveirawork_vfmzcu77zvdkbhgmeocsrubsdeSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTRuntime Complexity Bounds Using Squeezers
https://scholar.archive.org/work/rl374t3unrghnc7chpb4a65oie
Determining upper bounds on the time complexity of a program is a fundamental problem with a variety of applications, such as performance debugging, resource certification, and compile-time optimizations. Automated techniques for cost analysis excel at bounding the resource complexity of programs that use integer values and linear arithmetic. Unfortunately, they fall short when the complexity depends more intricately on the evolution of data during execution. In such cases, state-of-the-art analyzers have shown to produce loose bounds, or even no bound at all. We propose a novel technique that generalizes the common notion of recurrence relations based on ranking functions. Existing methods usually unfold one loop iteration and examine the resulting arithmetic relations between variables. These relations assist in establishing a recurrence that bounds the number of loop iterations. We propose a different approach, where we derive recurrences by comparing whole traces with whole traces of a lower rank, avoiding the need to analyze the complexity of intermediate states. We offer a set of global properties, defined with respect to whole traces, that facilitate such a comparison and show that these properties can be checked efficiently using a handful of local conditions. To this end, we adapt state squeezers , an induction mechanism previously used for verifying safety properties. We demonstrate that this technique encompasses the reasoning power of bounded unfolding, and more. We present some seemingly innocuous, yet intricate, examples that previous tools based on cost relations and control flow analysis fail to solve, and that our squeezer-powered approach succeeds.Oren Ish-Shalom, Shachar Itzhaky, Noam Rinetzky, Sharon Shohamwork_rl374t3unrghnc7chpb4a65oieFri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTNested Session Types
https://scholar.archive.org/work/cdzjx4x355eyjn7slpugmdj6di
Session types statically describe communication protocols between concurrent message-passing processes. Unfortunately, parametric polymorphism even in its restricted prenex form is not fully understood in the context of session types. In this article, we present the metatheory of session types extended with prenex polymorphism and, as a result, nested recursive datatypes. Remarkably, we prove that type equality is decidable by exhibiting a reduction to trace equivalence of deterministic first-order grammars. Recognizing the high theoretical complexity of the latter, we also propose a novel type equality algorithm and prove its soundness. We observe that the algorithm is surprisingly efficient and, despite its incompleteness, sufficient for all our examples. We have implemented our ideas by extending the Rast programming language with nested session types. We conclude with several examples illustrating the expressivity of our enhanced type system.Ankush Das, Henry Deyoung, Andreia Mordido, Frank Pfenningwork_cdzjx4x355eyjn7slpugmdj6diFri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTNon-iterative Conditional Pairwise Estimation for the Rating Scale Model
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nzol3v56wzfplkvdl42evzy5vq
We investigate two non-iterative estimation procedures for Rasch models, the pair-wise estimation procedure (PAIR) and the Eigenvector method (EVM), and identify theoretical issues with EVM for rating scale model (RSM) threshold estimation. We develop a new procedure to resolve these issues-the conditional pairwise adjacent thresholds procedure (CPAT)-and test the methods using a large number of simulated datasets to compare the estimates against known generating parameters. We find support for our hypotheses, in particular that EVM threshold estimates suffer from theoretical issues which lead to biased estimates and that CPAT represents a means of resolving these issues. These findings are both statistically significant (p < .001) and of a large effect size. We conclude that CPAT deserves serious consideration as a conditional, computationally efficient approach to Rasch parameter estimation for the RSM. CPAT has particular potential for use in contexts where computational load may be an issue, such as systems with multiple online algorithms and large test banks with sparse data designs.Mark Elliott, Paula Buttery, Apollo-University Of Cambridge Repositorywork_nzol3v56wzfplkvdl42evzy5vqFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTModel-Checking Branching-Time Properties of Stateless Probabilistic Pushdown Systems and Its Quantum Extension
https://scholar.archive.org/work/7dyl2vumkrakvm2ywdnmte5nvm
In this work, we first resolve a question in the probabilistic verification of infinite-state systems (specifically, the probabilistic pushdown systems). We show that model checking stateless probabilistic pushdown systems (pBPA) against probabilistic computational tree logic (PCTL) is generally undecidable. We define the quantum analogues of the probabilistic pushdown systems and Markov chains and investigate whether it is necessary to define a quantum analogue of probabilistic computational tree logic to describe the branching-time properties of the quantum Markov chain. We also study its model-checking problem and show that the model-checking of stateless quantum pushdown systems (qBPA) against probabilistic computational tree logic (PCTL) is generally undecidable, too. The immediate corollaries of the above results are summarized in the work.Tianrong Linwork_7dyl2vumkrakvm2ywdnmte5nvmThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTAutomatically Generating Test Cases for Safety-Critical Software via Symbolic Execution
https://scholar.archive.org/work/zjiygyx32veq7peknrr35zgura
Automated test generation based on symbolic execution can be beneficial for systematically testing safety-critical software, to facilitate test engineers to pursue the strict testing requirements mandated by the certification standards, while controlling at the same time the costs of the testing process. At the same time, the development of safety-critical software is often constrained with programming languages or coding conventions that ban linguistic features which are believed to downgrade the safety of the programs, e.g., they do not allow dynamic memory allocation and variable-length arrays, limit the way in which loops are used, forbid recursion, and bound the complexity of control conditions. As a matter of facts, these linguistic features are also the main efficiency-blockers for the test generation approaches based on symbolic execution at the state of the art. This paper contributes new evidence of the effectiveness of generating test cases with symbolic execution for a significant class of industrial safety critical-systems. We specifically focus on Scade, a largely adopted model-based development language for safety-critical embedded software, and we report on a case study in which we exploited symbolic execution to automatically generate test cases for a set of safety-critical programs developed in Scade. To this end, we introduce a novel test generator that we developed in a recent industrial project on testing safety-critical railway software written in Scade, and we report on our experience of using this test generator for testing a set of Scade programs that belong to the development of an on-board signaling unit for high-speed rail. The results provide empirically evidence that symbolic execution is indeed a viable approach for generating high-quality test suites for the safety-critical programs considered in our case study.Elson Kurian, Daniela Briola, Pietro Braione, Giovanni Denarowork_zjiygyx32veq7peknrr35zguraThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTA simple learning agent interacting with an agent-based market model
https://scholar.archive.org/work/43q2qmb75rcd5ephyalq2u6av4
We consider the learning dynamics of a single reinforcement learning optimal execution trading agent when it interacts with an event driven agent-based financial market model. Trading takes place asynchronously through a matching engine in event time. The optimal execution agent is considered at different levels of initial order-sizes and differently sized state spaces. The resulting impact on the agent-based model and market are considered using a calibration approach that explores changes in the empirical stylised facts and price impact curves. Convergence, volume trajectory and action trace plots are used to visualise the learning dynamics. Here the smaller state space agents had the number of states they visited converge much faster than the larger state space agents, and they were able to start learning to trade intuitively using the spread and volume states. We find that the moments of the model are robust to the impact of the learning agents except for the Hurst exponent, which was lowered by the introduction of strategic order-splitting. The introduction of the learning agent preserves the shape of the price impact curves but can reduce the trade-sign auto-correlations when their trading volumes increase.Matthew Dicks, Tim Gebbiework_43q2qmb75rcd5ephyalq2u6av4Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTHopf algebras and non-associative algebras in the study of iterated-integral signatures and rough paths
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vri56bn4anbznfnl6s7cmyo5fq
Over the course of three different collaborative projects, we gather evidence of how Hopf, Lie and pre-Lie, Zinbiel and dendriform, as well as Tortkara algebras appear in and influence the systematic combinatorial treatment of iterated-integral signatures of paths and rough paths. First, we investigate how Lie and pre-Lie structures of Lie polynomials and trees give rise to Hopf algebra homomorphisms which one can use to translate the higher orders of rough paths, and thus in a sense renormalize them. We obtain an interplay at the level of the rough differential equations (RDEs) driven by the translated rough path vs the original rough path, and furthermore explore how this translation-renormalization is in bijection with a renormalization group of a corresponding regularity structure. Secondly, we answer a question by Bernd Sturmfels of how the signature of a path under a polynomial map p(X) can be retrieved from the signature of the original path X. After we discussed this with elementary means, we explain how this can be seen as a corollary of a much more general statement on homomorphisms on the halfshuffle Zinbiel algebra vs the iterated-integral signature, which can be seen as being immediately equivalent to the classic halfshuffle relation of the signature. Finally, we study how the signed area enclosed by a two-dimensional path and the connection line between starting point and end point corresponds to an algebraic anticommutative area operation satisfying the Tortkara identity. We revisit the work of Rocha on coordinates of the first kind which led him to introduce such an area operation for the first time, work which can be formulated in terms of a dendriform algebra and the pre-Lie, symmetrized pre-Lie, Lie and associative operations it canonically induces. With our main result in this project being the fact that the whole shuffle algebra can be expressed in terms of shuffle polynomials of area polynomials, which answers a conjecture by Lyons that the knowledge of all areas of areas suffices to compute [...]Rosa Lili Dora Preiß, Technische Universität Berlin, Peter K. Frizwork_vri56bn4anbznfnl6s7cmyo5fqWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTContract Ability Level Mastery (CALM): A mastery program for remediating / extending basic English writing skills
https://scholar.archive.org/work/a3i66cinbfd5ljqbfr7x7jg5za
The purpose of this study was to implement a mastery program designed to improve and/or extend the basic writing skills of 125 Year Eight students. The basic writing skills were sentence writing and paragraph writing. Five theoretical underpinnings (mastery learning strategies, contract learning, higher order thinking skills, learning styles and control theory) were combined to produce and English program entitled Contract Ability Level Mastery (CALM). The CALM program ran for eight weeks and used action - research as the research methodology. A pre-test and a post-test were administered. The results of the post-test indicate significant improvements in the target students' sentence and paragraph writing skills. The study concludes that the CALM program did help the target students to remediate / improve basic sentence writing and paragraph writing skills.Terry Skidmorework_a3i66cinbfd5ljqbfr7x7jg5zaWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTIntrinsic Simulations and Universality in Automata Networks
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nqinjlbxnje53atvstfn74kceu
An automata network (AN) is a finite graph where each node holds a state from a finite alphabet and is equipped with a local map defining the evolution of the state of the node depending on its neighbors. They are studied both from the dynamical and the computational complexity point of view. Inspired from well-established notions in the context of cellular automata, we develop a theory of intrinsic simulations and universality for families of automata networks. We establish many consequences of intrinsic universality in terms of complexity of orbits (periods of attractors, transients, etc) as well as hardness of the standard well-studied decision problems for automata networks (short/long term prediction, reachability, etc). In the way, we prove orthogonality results for these problems: the hardness of a single one does not imply hardness of the others, while intrinsic universality implies hardness of all of them. As a complement, we develop a proof technique to establish intrinsic simulation and universality results which is suitable to deal with families of symmetric networks were connections are non-oriented. It is based on an operation of glueing of networks, which allows to produce complex orbits in large networks from compatible pseudo-orbits in small networks. As an illustration, we give a short proof that the family of networks were each node obeys the rule of the 'game of life' cellular automaton is strongly universal. This formalism and proof technique is also applied in a companion paper devoted to studying the effect of update schedules on intrinsic universality for concrete symmetric families of automata networks.Martín Ríos-Wilson, Guillaume Theyssierwork_nqinjlbxnje53atvstfn74kceuWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTCapturing Bisimulation-Invariant Exponential-Time Complexity Classes
https://scholar.archive.org/work/kutboqcc2ncw5pwbhzix54x5bq
Otto's Theorem characterises the bisimulation-invariant PTIME queries over graphs as exactly those that can be formulated in the polyadic mu-calculus, hinging on the Immerman-Vardi Theorem which characterises PTIME (over ordered structures) by First-Order Logic with least fixpoints. This connection has been extended to characterise bisimulation-invariant EXPTIME by an extension of the polyadic mu-calculus with functions on predicates, making use of Immerman's characterisation of EXPTIME by Second-Order Logic with least fixpoints. In this paper we show that the bisimulation-invariant versions of all classes in the exponential time hierarchy have logical counterparts which arise as extensions of the polyadic mu-calculus by higher-order functions. This makes use of the characterisation of k-EXPTIME by Higher-Order Logic (of order k+1) with least fixpoints, due to Freire and Martins.Florian Brusework_kutboqcc2ncw5pwbhzix54x5bqWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTThe LDBC Social Network Benchmark
https://scholar.archive.org/work/n5ffojhw2faijg2aboolkmdirq
The Linked Data Benchmark Council's Social Network Benchmark (LDBC SNB) is an effort intended to test various functionalities of systems used for graph-like data management. For this, LDBC SNB uses the recognizable scenario of operating a social network, characterized by its graph-shaped data. LDBC SNB consists of two workloads that focus on different functionalities: the Interactive workload (interactive transactional queries) and the Business Intelligence workload (analytical queries). This document contains the definition of both workloads. This includes a detailed explanation of the data used in the LDBC SNB, a detailed description for all queries, and instructions on how to generate the data and run the benchmark with the provided software.Renzo Angles, János Benjamin Antal, Alex Averbuch, Altan Birler, Peter Boncz, Márton Búr, Orri Erling, Andrey Gubichev, Vlad Haprian, Moritz Kaufmann, Josep Lluís Larriba Pey, Norbert Martínez, József Marton, Marcus Paradies, Minh-Duc Pham, Arnau Prat-Pérez, Mirko Spasić, Benjamin A. Steer, Dávid Szakállas, Gábor Szárnyas, Jack Waudby, Mingxi Wu, Yuchen Zhangwork_n5ffojhw2faijg2aboolkmdirqWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTPHM SURVEY: Implementation of Prognostic Methods for Monitoring Industrial Systems
https://scholar.archive.org/work/kemxmxr7ezfg3egcfmxmt73j6e
Prognostics and Health Management (commonly called PHM) is a field that focuses on the degradation mechanisms of systems in order to estimate their health status, anticipate their failure and optimize their maintenance. PHM uses methods, tools and algorithms for monitoring, anomaly detection, cause diagnosis, prognosis of the remaining useful life (RUL) and maintenance optimization. It allows for permanently monitoring the health of the system and provides operators and managers with relevant information to decide on actions to be taken to maintain the system in optimal operational conditions. This paper aims to present the emergence of the PHM thematically to describe the subjacent processes, particularly prognosis, how it supplies the different maintenance strategies and to explain the benefits that can be anticipated. More specifically, this paper establishes a state of the art in prognostic methods used today in the PHM strategy. In addition, this paper shows the multitude of possible prognostic approaches and the choice of one among them that will help to provide a framework for industrial companies.Abdenour Soualhi, Mourad Lamraoui, Bilal Elyousfi, Hubert Razikwork_kemxmxr7ezfg3egcfmxmt73j6eWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTHuman Treelike Tubular Structure Segmentation: A Comprehensive Review and Future Perspectives
https://scholar.archive.org/work/4lgkodnscfchxnrpgnjepgsqfq
Various structures in human physiology follow a treelike morphology, which often expresses complexity at very fine scales. Examples of such structures are intrathoracic airways, retinal blood vessels, and hepatic blood vessels. Large collections of 2D and 3D images have been made available by medical imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ultrasound in which the spatial arrangement can be observed. Segmentation of these structures in medical imaging is of great importance since the analysis of the structure provides insights into disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and prognosis. Manually labelling extensive data by radiologists is often time-consuming and error-prone. As a result, automated or semi-automated computational models have become a popular research field of medical imaging in the past two decades, and many have been developed to date. In this survey, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of currently publicly available datasets, segmentation algorithms, and evaluation metrics. In addition, current challenges and future research directions are discussed.Hao Li, Zeyu Tang, Yang Nan, Guang Yangwork_4lgkodnscfchxnrpgnjepgsqfqWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTInfinitary Logic Has No Expressive Efficiency Over Finitary Logic
https://scholar.archive.org/work/h6gerrql7feyligxs5xdqtbhkq
We can measure the complexity of a logical formula by counting the number of alternations between existential and universal quantifiers. Suppose that an elementary first-order formula φ (in ℒ_ω,ω) is equivalent to a formula of the infinitary language ℒ_∞,ω with n alternations of quantifiers. We prove that φ is equivalent to a finitary formula with n alternations of quantifiers. Thus using infinitary logic does not allow us to express a finitary formula in a simpler way.Matthew Harrison-Trainor, Miles Kretschmerwork_h6gerrql7feyligxs5xdqtbhkqTue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTOptimal learning of quantum Hamiltonians from high-temperature Gibbs states
https://scholar.archive.org/work/5g2fbkaxabcubjok2kgsnsvgsy
We study the problem of learning a Hamiltonian H to precision ε, supposing we are given copies of its Gibbs state ρ=exp(-β H)/Tr(exp(-β H)) at a known inverse temperature β. Anshu, Arunachalam, Kuwahara, and Soleimanifar (Nature Physics, 2021, arXiv:2004.07266) recently studied the sample complexity (number of copies of ρ needed) of this problem for geometrically local N-qubit Hamiltonians. In the high-temperature (low β) regime, their algorithm has sample complexity poly(N, 1/β,1/ε) and can be implemented with polynomial, but suboptimal, time complexity. In this paper, we study the same question for a more general class of Hamiltonians. We show how to learn the coefficients of a Hamiltonian to error ε with sample complexity S = O(log N/(βε)^2) and time complexity linear in the sample size, O(S N). Furthermore, we prove a matching lower bound showing that our algorithm's sample complexity is optimal, and hence our time complexity is also optimal. In the appendix, we show that virtually the same algorithm can be used to learn H from a real-time evolution unitary e^-it H in a small t regime with similar sample and time complexity.Jeongwan Haah, Robin Kothari, Ewin Tangwork_5g2fbkaxabcubjok2kgsnsvgsyTue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTAn attempt to understand relational quantum mechanics
https://scholar.archive.org/work/622yizuatbentjr4a3avtri6qm
We search for a possible mathematical formulation of some of the key ideas of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and study their consequences. We also briefly overview some proposals of relational quantum mechanics for an axiomatic reconstruction of the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics.Pekka Lahti, Juha-Pekka Pellonpääwork_622yizuatbentjr4a3avtri6qmTue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTRandomness below complete theories of arithmetic
https://scholar.archive.org/work/o5zhculhm5fuzc2iuybc6ctc4a
We show that degrees containing a complete extensions of arithmetic have the random join property: they are the supremum of any random real they compute, with another random real. The same is true for the truth-table and weak truth-table reducibilities.George Barmpalias, Wei Wangwork_o5zhculhm5fuzc2iuybc6ctc4aTue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT