IA Scholar Query: On Infinite Prefix Normal Words.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440Chapter 5 RHYME AND REASON IN THE BATTLE OF MALDON
https://scholar.archive.org/work/l6k74kygvjachh63b56lxdz6aa
Mark Athertonwork_l6k74kygvjachh63b56lxdz6aaSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTChapter 13 THE MYSTERY OF OLD ENGLISH TYPE A2K
https://scholar.archive.org/work/hai6lezsyzbuphzt47xnshan5i
Geoffrey Russomwork_hai6lezsyzbuphzt47xnshan5iSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTChapter 4 THE BATTLE OF MALDON AND THE VENGEANCE OF OFFA
https://scholar.archive.org/work/j52powebtbcszeb4bmezdfbhyy
is the Richard Ellmann Tutorial Fellow at New College, Oxford. 1 Quotations from the poem (but with some changes to the punctuation) are taken from The Battle of Maldon, ed. D. G. Scragg (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981), except where otherwise noted. Beowulf quotations are from Klaeber 4, other Old English verse is from ASPR.Mark Griffithwork_j52powebtbcszeb4bmezdfbhyySat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTChapter 4 VP-ellipsis in coordinated clauses with a parallel structure
https://scholar.archive.org/work/crjrcmebe5ac7fvlvnrb37y5am
Zoltán Bánrétiwork_crjrcmebe5ac7fvlvnrb37y5amSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTA Review on the Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructurd Metal Oxides
https://scholar.archive.org/work/s4t72ajapngyxncihjdrhbbkve
Abstract: Materials reduced to the nanoscale can suddenly show very different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. Nanomaterials can be metals, ceramics, polymeric materials, or composite materials. Their defining characteristic is a very small feature size in the range of 1-100 nanometers (nm). Synthesis Methods play very important role to control the size and surface area of nanomaterials. Inert gas evaporation technique and sputtering technique are most widely used techniques to produce NSMs. In the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) method, the solid is deposited on a heated surface via a chemical reaction from the vapor or gas phase. The chemical process offer over other methods is good chemical homogeneity, as chemical synthesis offers mixing at molecular level. Several synthesis methods are available for the same. Few of them have been described in this article. The understanding of the characterization techniques is equally important. Some of the characterization techniques such as Scaaning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX or EDXRF) etc have been discussed in the present article.Rajeev Singh, Anuradha Yadavwork_s4t72ajapngyxncihjdrhbbkveWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTConjunctive queries for logic-based information extraction
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wd2pb3qomzeb7lqcc3av3fepqq
This thesis offers two logic-based approaches to conjunctive queries in the context of information extraction. The first and main approach is the introduction of conjunctive query fragments of the logics FC and FC[REG], denoted as FC-CQ and FC[REG]-CQ respectively. FC is a first-order logic based on word equations, where the semantics are defined by limiting the universe to the factors of some finite input word. FC[REG] is FC extended with regular constraints. Our first results consider the comparative expressive power of FC[REG]-CQ in relation to document spanners (a formal framework for the query language AQL), and various fragments of FC[REG]-CQ – some of which coincide with well-known language generators, such as patterns and regular expressions. Then, we look at decision problems. We show that many decision problems for FC-CQ and FC[REG]-CQ (such as equivalence and regularity) are undecidable. The model checking problem for FC-CQ and FC[REG]-CQ is NP-complete even if the FC-CQ is acyclic – under the definition of acyclicity where each word equation in an FC-CQ is an atom. This leads us to look at the "decomposition" of an FC word equation into a conjunction of binary word equations (i.e., of the form x =˙ y · z). If a query consists of only binary word equations and the query is acyclic, then model checking is tractable and we can enumerate results efficiently. We give an algorithm that decomposes an FC-CQ into an acyclic FC-CQ consisting of binary word equations in polynomial time, or determines that this is not possible. The second approach is to consider the dynamic complexity of FC. This uses the common way of encoding words in a relational structure using a universe with a linear order along with symbol predicates. Then, each element of the universe can carry a symbol if the predicate for said symbol holds for that element. Instead of the "usual way" (looking at first-order logic over these structures), we study the dynamic complexity, where symbols can be modified. As each of these modifications only c [...]Sam M Thompsonwork_wd2pb3qomzeb7lqcc3av3fepqqWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTBridging Causal Reversibility and Time Reversibility: A Stochastic Process Algebraic Approach
https://scholar.archive.org/work/yw4hozjk4fbbhgzrj6hwbaeuuy
Causal reversibility blends causality and reversibility for concurrent systems. It indicates that an action can be undone provided that all of its consequences have been undone already, thus making it possible to bring the system back to a past consistent state. Time reversibility is instead considered in the field of stochastic processes, mostly for efficient analysis purposes. A performance model based on a continuous-time Markov chain is time reversible if its stochastic behavior remains the same when the direction of time is reversed. We bridge these two theories of reversibility by showing the conditions under which causal reversibility and time reversibility are both ensured by construction. This is done in the setting of a stochastic process calculus, which is then equipped with a variant of stochastic bisimilarity accounting for both forward and backward directions.Marco Bernardo, Claudio Antares Mezzinawork_yw4hozjk4fbbhgzrj6hwbaeuuyWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTRewriting in Gray categories with applications to coherence
https://scholar.archive.org/work/2kgice4jt5gzjn5v6hislmc7fi
Over the recent years, the theory of rewriting has been used and extended in order to provide systematic techniques to show coherence results for strict higher categories. Here, we investigate a further generalization to Gray categories, which are known to be equivalent to tricategories. This requires us to develop the theory of rewriting in the setting of precategories, which include Gray categories as particular cases, and are adapted to mechanized computations. We show that a finite rewriting system in precategories admits a finite number of critical pairs, which can be efficiently computed. We also extend Squier's theorem to our context, showing that a convergent rewriting system is coherent, which means that any two parallel 3-cells are necessarily equal. This allows us to prove coherence results for several well-known structures in the context of Gray categories: monoids, adjunctions, Frobenius monoids.Simon Forest, Samuel Mimramwork_2kgice4jt5gzjn5v6hislmc7fiTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTSmart Cities and Architectural Structures: Communicational and Informational Space
https://scholar.archive.org/work/cbbp3g3255en3kvyflybpyig4y
The expectations for shaping the urban landscape toward the ethical and aesthetic values of democracy are seen as the main challenge of an intelligent environment, made possible via information and communication technologies. Consequently, architecture's tendency to embrace digital media strives to create innovative and sustainable infrastructure. This approach aims for an argumentative theoretical analysis of aesthetics and communication sciences. The focus is on the context that continuously evolves living traditions persuaded by innovation that modifies and facilitates the evolution of society. The approach is also supposed to be a constantly evolving practice that engenders interaction between past, present, and future, configuring a unique urban landscape. The goal is about the metropolis as a collective achievement, seeking innovation through technologies while preserving tradition. Therefore, the convergence between architecture, technology, and new media requires the consideration of two viewpoints in this analysis. The first is the adopted architectural spatial models. The second is the transformative structure through new media, creating realities, intelligent environments, and interactive communities. Under these two directions, the artificial environment and imagined configuration through digital media are discussed, considering that technology overcame natural boundaries: the leitmotif of human cultural development.Christiane Wagnerwork_cbbp3g3255en3kvyflybpyig4yTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTOn reduction and normalization in the computational core
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vygmbktb7rhmbnajzax7dw3i3i
We study the reduction in a lambda-calculus derived from Moggi's computational one, that we call the computational core. The reduction relation consists of rules obtained by orienting three monadic laws. Such laws, in particular associativity and identity, introduce intricacies in the operational analysis. We investigate the central notions of returning a value versus having a normal form, and address the question of normalizing strategies. Our analysis relies on factorization results.Claudia Faggian, Giulio Guerrieri, Ugo de'Liguoro, Riccardo Tregliawork_vygmbktb7rhmbnajzax7dw3i3iTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2019
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4ze
On completion of this course, students will have knowledge in: • CO1.Basics of electrochemistry. Classical & modern batteries and fuel cells. CO2. Causes & effects of corrosion of metals and control of corrosion. Modification of surface properties of metals to develop resistance to corrosion, wear, tear, impact etc. by electroplating and electroless plating. CO3. Production & consumption of energy for industrialization of country and living standards of people. Utilization of solar energy for different useful forms of energy. CO4. Understanding Phase rule and instrumental techniques and its applications. CO5.Over viewing of synthesis, properties and applications of nanomaterials.BTECH.CSwork_wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4zeMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/gze4zbzdt5a6xe6yg6qrijqlca
BTECH.ECEwork_gze4zbzdt5a6xe6yg6qrijqlcaMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ggji2kgovvhtlh6nq7bk7mukh4
Module 2 Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Powerpoint presentation: Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Video: Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Self-study material: Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. 9 Hours Module 3 Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors-Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Powerpoint presentation: Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors. Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Video: Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Self-study material: Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism 9 Hours Module 4 Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Expression for inter -planar spacing. Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Powerpoint presentation: Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Self-study material: Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. 9 Hours Module 5 Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate. Diffraction grating -Grating element -Grating equation -Construction of grating-Reflection and transmission grating. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Powerpoint presentation: Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate. Diffraction grating -Grating element -Grating equation -Construction of grating-Reflection and transmission grating. Self-study material: Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. 9 Hours C PROGRAMMING Subject Code 21SCS12 IA Marks 50 Number of Lecture Hours/Week 2 (L) + 2 (T) Exam Marks 50 Total Number of Lecture Hours 45 Total Marks 100 Credits 03 Exam Hours 2 Course Objectives: 1. To understand the various steps in program development. 2. To learn the syntax and semantics of C programming language. 3. To learn the usage of structured programming approach in solving problems. Course Outcomes: CO1: On completion of this course students will be able to write algorithms and to draw flowcharts for solving problems. CO2: On completion of this course students will be able to convert the algorithms/flowcharts to C programs. CO3: Students will be able to code and test a given logic in C programming language. CO4: Students will be able to decompose a problem into functions and to develop modular reusable code. CO5: Students will be able to use arrays, pointers, strings and structures to write C programs. Module 1 Introduction to Algorithms: Steps to solve logical and numerical problems. Representation of Algorithm, Flowchart/Pseudo code with examples, Program design and structured programming Introduction to C Programming Language: variables, Syntax and Logical Errors in compilation, object and executable code, Operators, expressions and precedence, Expression evaluation, Storage classes, type conversion, The main method and command line arguments. Bitwise operations: Bitwise AND, OR, XOR and NOT operators. Conditional Branching and Loops: Writing and evaluation of conditionals and consequent branching with if, if-else, switch-case, ternary operator, goto, Iteration with for, while, do-while loops I/O: Simple input and output with scanf and printf, formatted I/O, Introduction to stdin, stdout and stderr. Command line arguments. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 2 Arrays, Strings, Structures and Pointers: Arrays: one and two-dimensional arrays, creating, accessing and manipulating elements of arrays. Strings: Introduction to strings, handling strings as array of characters, basic string functions available in C (strlen, strcat, strcpy, strstr etc.), arrays of strings. Structures: Defining structures, initializing structures, unions, Array of structures. Pointers: Idea of pointers, Defining pointers, Pointers to Arrays and Structures, Use of Pointers in self referential structures, usage of self referential structures in linked list (no implementation) Enumeration data type. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. Module 3 9 Hours Preprocessor and File handling in C: Preprocessor: Commonly used Preprocessor commands like include, define, undef, if, ifdef, ifndef Files: Text and Binary files, Creating and Reading and writing text and binary files, Appending data to existing files, Writing and reading structures using binary files, Random access using fseek, ftell and rewind functions. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 4 Function and Dynamic Memory Allocation: Functions: Designing structured programs, Declaring a function, Signature of a function, Parameters and return type of a function, passing parameters to functions, call by value, Passing arrays to functions, passing pointers to functions, idea of call by reference, Some C standard functions and libraries Recursion: Simple programs, such as Finding Factorial, Fibonacci series etc., Limitations of Recursive functions. Dynamic memory allocation: Allocating and freeing memory, Allocating memory for arrays of different data types. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 5 C PROGRAMMING LABORATORY Subject Code 21SCSL12 IA Marks 25 Number of Practical Hours/Week 1 (T) + 2 (L) Exam Marks 25 Total Number of Practical Hours 36 Total Marks 50 Credits 02 Exam Hours 3 Course Objectives: 1. To describe the basics of computer and understand the problem-solving aspect. 2. To demonstrate the algorithm and flow chart for the given problem. 3. To introduce students to the basic knowledge of programming fundamentals of C language. 4. To impart writing skill of C programming to the students and solving problems. 5. To impart the concepts like looping, array, functions, pointers, file, structure. Course Outcomes: CO1: Understand the problem solving to write efficient algorithms to solve real time problems. CO2: Understand and use various constructs of the programming language such as conditionals, iteration, and recursion. CO3: Implement your algorithms to build programs in the C programming language. CO4: Use data structures like arrays, linked lists, and stacks to solve various problems. CO5: Understand and use file handling in the C programming language. EXPERIMENTS: Implement the following programs with WINDOWS / LINUX platform using appropriate C compiler. Course Objectives: 1. To provide basic concepts D.C circuits and circuit analysis techniques 2. To provide knowledge on A.C circuit fundamental techniques 3. To understand construction and operation of BJT and Junction FET 4. Explain the different modes of communications from wired to wireless and the computing involved. 5. To provide fundamental knowledge of Digital Logic. Course Outcomes: CO1: Understand concepts of electrical circuits and elements. CO2: Apply basic electric laws in solving circuit problems. CO3: Analyze simple circuits containing transistors CO4: Understand concept of cellular wireless networks. CO5: Understand Number systems and design basic digital circuits.BTECH.MECHwork_ggji2kgovvhtlh6nq7bk7mukh4Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/n7rhmaerpvfrhha4draeqwscs4
Course Objectives: 1. Learn and understand basic concepts and principles of Physics. 2. Make students familiar with latest trends in material science research and learn about novel materials and its applications. 3. Make students confident in analyzing engineering problems and apply its solutions effectively and meaningfully. 4. Gain knowledge in interference and diffraction of light and its applications in new technology. Course Outcomes: CO1: Learn and understand more about basic principles and to develop problem solving skills and implementation in technology. CO2: Study material properties and their application and its use in engineering applications and studies. CO3: Understand crystal structure and applications to boost the technical skills and its applications. CO4: Apply light phenomena in new technology. Module 1 Classical free electron theory-Free-electron concept (Drift velocity, Thermal velocity, Mean collision time, Mean free path, relaxation time) -Expression for electrical conductivity-Failure of classical free electron theory. Quantum free electron theory, Assumptions, Fermi factor, Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Expression for electrical conductivity based on quantum free electron theory. Merits of quantum free electron theory. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity -Specific heat -Thermionic emission. Hall effect (Qualitative) -Wiedemann-Franz law. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Classical free electron theory-Free-electron concept (Drift velocity, Thermal velocity, Mean collision time, Mean free path, relaxation time) -Expression for electrical conductivity-Failure of classical free electron theory. Powerpoint presentation: Quantum free electron theory, Assumptions, Fermi factor, Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Expression for electrical conductivity based on quantum free electron theory. Merits of quantum free electron theory. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity -Specific heat -Thermionic emission. Wiedemann-Franz law. Self-study material: Hall effect (Qualitative) 9 Hours Module 2 Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Powerpoint presentation: Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Video: Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Self-study material: Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. 9 Hours Module 3 Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors-Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Powerpoint presentation: Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors. Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Video: Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Self-study material: Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism 9 Hours Module 4 Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Expression for interplanar spacing. Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Powerpoint presentation: Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Self-study material: Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. 9 Hours Module 5 Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate.BTECH.CSwork_n7rhmaerpvfrhha4draeqwscs4Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTEfficient Answer Enumeration in Description Logics with Functional Roles – Extended Version
https://scholar.archive.org/work/dxohk5usfndn5fkzmacxihfybe
We study the enumeration of answers to ontology-mediated queries when the ontology is formulated in a description logic that supports functional roles and the query is a CQ. In particular, we show that enumeration is possible with linear preprocessing and constant delay when a certain extension of the CQ (pertaining to functional roles) is acyclic and free-connex acyclic. This holds both for complete answers and for partial answers. We provide matching lower bounds for the case where the query is self-join free.Carsten Lutz, Marcin Przybylkowork_dxohk5usfndn5fkzmacxihfybeMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2019
https://scholar.archive.org/work/g6qfzbclcfe6pobzwry66zimou
On completion of this course, students will have knowledge in: • CO1.Basics of electrochemistry. Classical & modern batteries and fuel cells. CO2. Causes & effects of corrosion of metals and control of corrosion. Modification of surface properties of metals to develop resistance to corrosion, wear, tear, impact etc. by electroplating and electroless plating. CO3. Production & consumption of energy for industrialization of country and living standards of people. Utilization of solar energy for different useful forms of energy. CO4. Understanding Phase rule and instrumental techniques and its applications. CO5.Over viewing of synthesis, properties and applications of nanomaterials.BTECH.MECHwork_g6qfzbclcfe6pobzwry66zimouMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTHyperATL*: A Logic for Hyperproperties in Multi-Agent Systems
https://scholar.archive.org/work/5cnnxzeuwzexdftthxceuupnyy
Hyperproperties are system properties that relate multiple computation paths in a system and are commonly used to, e.g., define information-flow policies. In this paper, we study a novel class of hyperproperties that allow reasoning about strategic abilities in multi-agent systems. We introduce HyperATL*, an extension of computation tree logic with path variables and strategy quantifiers. Our logic supports quantification over paths in a system - as is possible in hyperlogics such as HyperCTL* - but resolves the paths based on the strategic choices of a coalition of agents. HyperATL* can express strategic hyperproperties, such as that the scheduler in a concurrent system has a strategy to avoid information leakage. This allows us to capture many previously studied (strategic) security notions in a unifying hyperlogic. Moreover, we show that HyperATL* is particularly useful for specifying asynchronous hyperproperties, i.e., hyperproperties where the execution speed on the different computation paths depends on the choices of a scheduler. We show that finite-state model checking of HyperATL* is decidable and present a model checking algorithm based on alternating automata. We establish that our algorithm is asymptotically optimal by proving matching lower bounds. We have implemented a prototype model checker for a fragment of HyperATL* that can check various security properties in small finite-state systems.Raven Beutner, Bernd Finkbeinerwork_5cnnxzeuwzexdftthxceuupnyyMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTComplexity of Safety and coSafety Fragments of Linear Temporal Logic
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nbhmfv6csvennd2yht6vsomg3i
Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is the de-facto standard temporal logic for system specification, whose foundational properties have been studied for over five decades. Safety and cosafety properties define notable fragments of LTL, where a prefix of a trace suffices to establish whether a formula is true or not over that trace. In this paper, we study the complexity of the problems of satisfiability, validity, and realizability over infinite and finite traces for the safety and cosafety fragments of LTL. As for satisfiability and validity over infinite traces, we prove that the majority of the fragments have the same complexity as full LTL, that is, they are PSPACE-complete. The picture is radically different for realizability: we find fragments with the same expressive power whose complexity varies from 2EXPTIME-complete (as full LTL) to EXPTIME-complete. Notably, for all cosafety fragments, the complexity of the three problems does not change passing from infinite to finite traces, while for all safety fragments the complexity of satisfiability (resp., realizability) over finite traces drops to NP-complete (resp., Π^P_2-complete).Alessandro Artale, Luca Geatti, Nicola Gigante, Andrea Mazzullo, Angelo Montanariwork_nbhmfv6csvennd2yht6vsomg3iSun, 27 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTInterval-censored Hawkes processes
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vod3v7itzrcbvjgxdk37lbl6we
Interval-censored data solely records the aggregated counts of events during specific time intervals - such as the number of patients admitted to the hospital or the volume of vehicles passing traffic loop detectors - and not the exact occurrence time of the events. It is currently not understood how to fit the Hawkes point processes to this kind of data. Its typical loss function (the point process log-likelihood) cannot be computed without exact event times. Furthermore, it does not have the independent increments property to use the Poisson likelihood. This work builds a novel point process, a set of tools, and approximations for fitting Hawkes processes within interval-censored data scenarios. First, we define the Mean Behavior Poisson process (MBPP), a novel Poisson process with a direct parameter correspondence to the popular self-exciting Hawkes process. We fit MBPP in the interval-censored setting using an interval-censored Poisson log-likelihood (IC-LL). We use the parameter equivalence to uncover the parameters of the associated Hawkes process. Second, we introduce two novel exogenous functions to distinguish the exogenous from the endogenous events. We propose the multi-impulse exogenous function - for when the exogenous events are observed as event time - and the latent homogeneous Poisson process exogenous function - for when the exogenous events are presented as interval-censored volumes. Third, we provide several approximation methods to estimate the intensity and compensator function of MBPP when no analytical solution exists. Fourth and finally, we connect the interval-censored loss of MBPP to a broader class of Bregman divergence-based functions. Using the connection, we show that the popularity estimation algorithm Hawkes Intensity Process (HIP) is a particular case of the MBPP. We verify our models through empirical testing on synthetic data and real-world data.Marian-Andrei Rizoiu, Alexander Soen, Shidi Li, Pio Calderon, Leanne Dong, Aditya Krishna Menon, Lexing Xiework_vod3v7itzrcbvjgxdk37lbl6weSat, 26 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTOn the Complexity of Bayesian Generalization
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ynia7sdxtvdrlajhnltmqtezfq
We consider concept generalization at a large scale in the diverse and natural visual spectrum. Established computational modes (i.e., rule-based or similarity-based) are primarily studied isolated and focus on confined and abstract problem spaces. In this work, we study these two modes when the problem space scales up, and the complexity of concepts becomes diverse. Specifically, at the representational level, we seek to answer how the complexity varies when a visual concept is mapped to the representation space. Prior psychology literature has shown that two types of complexities (i.e., subjective complexity and visual complexity) (Griffiths and Tenenbaum, 2003) build an inverted-U relation (Donderi, 2006; Sun and Firestone, 2021). Leveraging Representativeness of Attribute (RoA), we computationally confirm the following observation: Models use attributes with high RoA to describe visual concepts, and the description length falls in an inverted-U relation with the increment in visual complexity. At the computational level, we aim to answer how the complexity of representation affects the shift between the rule- and similarity-based generalization. We hypothesize that category-conditioned visual modeling estimates the co-occurrence frequency between visual and categorical attributes, thus potentially serving as the prior for the natural visual world. Experimental results show that representations with relatively high subjective complexity outperform those with relatively low subjective complexity in the rule-based generalization, while the trend is the opposite in the similarity-based generalization.Yu-Zhe Shi, Manjie Xu, John E. Hopcroft, Kun He, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Song-Chun Zhu, Ying Nian Wu, Wenjuan Han, Yixin Zhuwork_ynia7sdxtvdrlajhnltmqtezfqSat, 26 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT