IA Scholar Query: Factorization of a 768-Bit RSA Modulus.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgThu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440Privacy-Preserving Chaotic Extreme Learning Machine with Fully Homomorphic Encryption
https://scholar.archive.org/work/da2sw4exf5av7o45w2dklii23q
The Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models require a lot of data for the training process, and in some scenarios, there might be some sensitive data, such as customer information involved, which the organizations might be hesitant to outsource for model building. Some of the privacy-preserving techniques such as Differential Privacy, Homomorphic Encryption, and Secure Multi-Party Computation can be integrated with different Machine Learning and Deep Learning algorithms to provide security to the data as well as the model. In this paper, we propose a Chaotic Extreme Learning Machine and its encrypted form using Fully Homomorphic Encryption where the weights and biases are generated using a logistic map instead of uniform distribution. Our proposed method has performed either better or similar to the Traditional Extreme Learning Machine on most of the datasets.Syed Imtiaz Ahamed, Vadlamani Raviwork_da2sw4exf5av7o45w2dklii23qThu, 04 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMTLWE over cyclic algebras: a novel structure for lattice cryptography
https://scholar.archive.org/work/6ulql3r6xbc4jmoxvnlsds53em
The work done in this thesis is an introduction to the use of cyclic algebras in post quantum cryptography, with a particular focus on lattice cryptography and the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem. Algebraic variants of the LWE problem are some of the most promising candidates for quantum resistant public key and signature schemes. Since different variants come with their own strengths and weaknesses, adding a version over cyclic algebras provides another flavour to study. The first part of the thesis establishes the hardness of the Learning With Errors Over Cyclic Algebras (CLWE) problem, basing its difficulty on short vector problems over certain structured lattices in the same manner as the analogous Ring and Module LWE problems. These structured lattices are applied in cryptography for the first time. The second part of the thesis constructs concrete families of cyclic algebras suitable for use in practice. The requirements on dimensions of ambient spaces for lattice cryptography are considered and precise cyclic algebras are constructed using a collection of novel techniques. The final part of this thesis explains carefully how to convert the theoretical construction of the CLWE problem into a form appropriate for real world cryptography. The problem is rephrased as a discrete problem, following which an example public key cryptosystem based on the CLWE problem is built in the style of other LWE based schemes. Overall, the thesis introduces and thoroughly justifies the construction of the CLWE problem, the first instance of non-commutative ring cryptography based on lattices, and provides the basic requirements and functionalities needed to construct cryptographic primitives in these algebras. It also leaves behind a substantial quantity of new open questions regarding the use of cyclic algebras in more intricate cryptographic constructions.Charles Everitt Grover, Cong Ling, National Cyber Security Centrework_6ulql3r6xbc4jmoxvnlsds53emThu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMTRevisiting the Polynomial-Time Equivalence of Computing the CRT-RSA Secret Key and Factoring
https://scholar.archive.org/work/kcatyb4e35fwzdgoygocv4nfju
The Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem is currently the most influential and commonly used algorithm in public-key cryptography. Whether the security of RSA is equivalent to the intractability of the integer factorization problem is an interesting issue in mathematics and cryptography. Coron and May solved the above most fundamental problem and proved the polynomial-time equivalence of computing the RSA secret key and factoring. They demonstrated that the RSA modulus N=pq can be factored in polynomial time when given RSA key information (N,e,d). The CRT-RSA variant is a fast technical implementation of RSA using the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT), which aims to speed up the decryption process. We focus on the polynomial-time equivalence of computing the CRT-RSA secret key and factoring in this paper. With the help of the latest partial key exposure attack on CRT-RSA, we demonstrate that there exists a polynomial-time algorithm outputting the factorization of N=pq for edp,edq<N3/2 when given the CRT-RSA key information (N,e,dp,dq). We apply Coppersmith's lattice-based method as a basic mathematical tool for finding the small root solutions of modular polynomial equations. Furthermore, we provide validation experiments to illustrate the correctness of the CRT-RSA modulus factorization algorithm, and show that computing the CRT-RSA secret key and factoring its modulus is polynomial-time equivalent by using concrete numerical examples.Mengce Zhengwork_kcatyb4e35fwzdgoygocv4nfjuSun, 26 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMTThe Case of Small Prime Numbers Versus the Joye–Libert Cryptosystem
https://scholar.archive.org/work/iws7iqih7fbltaewd5tbtvvesa
In this paper, we study the effect of using small prime numbers within the Joye–Libert public key encryption scheme. We introduce two novel versions and prove their security. We further show how to choose the system's parameters such that the security results hold. Moreover, we provide a practical comparison between the cryptographic algorithms we introduced and the original Joye–Libert cryptosystem.George Teşeleanuwork_iws7iqih7fbltaewd5tbtvvesaSat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 GMTResearch on the Security of Elliptic Curve Cryptography
https://scholar.archive.org/work/phz7p7vn4nftljxzpwj4hly7si
Elliptic curve cryptography has the characteristics of high-security strength and low computational complexity. Elliptic curve cryptography relies on point multiplication, which is the most time-consuming part of the encryption and decryption process. The Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem is currently the most famous and potential public key cryptosystem. It is proposed based on the computational difficulty of discrete logarithms on the elliptic curve, and its security research is an important research area in academia. This paper analyzes the security of elliptic cryptographic curves from the performance comparison of ECC and RSA. Moreover, this paper implements RSA and ECC using random private keys, and the sample data input is 64-bit, 8-bit, and 256-bit. Experiments are done on MATLAB R2008a on an Intel Pentium dual-core processor. The findings reveal that RSA is efficient at encryption, but sluggish at decryption, whereas ECC is slow at encryption but efficient at decryption. Overall, ECC outperforms RSA in terms of efficiency and security. ECC surpasses RSA in terms of operational security and efficiency, according to this research.Jiaxu Baowork_phz7p7vn4nftljxzpwj4hly7siRSA, DH, and DSA in the Wild
https://scholar.archive.org/work/753g5fbwkzb3da3i4v6nxhlewq
Nadia Heningerwork_753g5fbwkzb3da3i4v6nxhlewqEfficient Multiplication of Somewhat Small Integers using Number-Theoretic Transforms
https://scholar.archive.org/work/gmxavfkpnbherbqko35ns4whpq
Conventional wisdom purports that FFT-based integer multiplication methods (such as the Schönhage-Strassen algorithm) begin to compete with Karatsuba and Toom-Cook only for integers of several tens of thousands of bits. In this work, we challenge this belief: Leveraging recent advances in the implementation of Number-Theoretic Transforms (NTT) stimulated by their use in Post-Quantum Cryptography, we report on implementations of NTT-based integer arithmetic on two Arm Cortex-M CPUs on opposite ends of the performance spectrum: Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M55. Our results indicate that NTT-based multiplication is capable of outperforming the big-number arithmetic implementations of popular embedded cryptography libraries for integers as small as 2048 bits. To provide a realistic case study, we benchmark implementations of the RSA encryption and decryption operations. Between Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M55, we observe a ≈ 10× performance improvement.Hanno Becker, Vincent Hwang, Matthias J. Kannwischer, Lorenz Panny, Bo-Yin Yangwork_gmxavfkpnbherbqko35ns4whpqThe Case of Small Prime Numbers Versus the Joye-Libert Cryptosystem
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ptbxvpk62fh3hm3x6p7kitrqme
In this paper we study the effect of using small prime numbers within the Joye-Libert public key encryption scheme. We introduce two novel versions and prove their security. We further show how to choose the system's parameters such that the security results hold. Moreover, we provide a practical comparison between the cryptographic algorithms we introduced and the original Joye-Libert cryptosystem.George Teseleanuwork_ptbxvpk62fh3hm3x6p7kitrqmePQC-SEP: Power Side-channel Evaluation Platform for Post-Quantum Cryptography Algorithms
https://scholar.archive.org/work/va2eaeqbc5gxjbiopds5bzqfaa
Research in post-quantum cryptography (PQC) aims to develop cryptographic algorithms that can withstand classical and quantum attacks. The recent advance in the PQC field has gradually switched from the theory to the implementation of cryptographic algorithms on hardware platforms. In addition, the PQC standardization process of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is currently in its third round. It specifies ease of protection against side-channel analysis (SCA) as an essential selection criterion. Following this trend, in this paper, we evaluate side-channel leakages of existing PQC implementations using PQC-SEP, a completely automated side-channel evaluation platform at both pre-and post-silicon levels. It automatically estimates the amount of side-channel leakage in the power profile of a PQC design at early design stages, i.e., RTL, gate level, and physical layout level. It also efficiently validates side-channel leakages at the post-silicon level against artificial intelligence (AI) based SCA models and traditional SCA models. Further, we delineate challenges and approaches for future research directions.Jungmin Park, N. Nalla Anandakumar, Dipayan Saha, Dhwani Mehta, Nitin Pundir, Fahim Rahman, Farimah Farahmandi, Mark M. Tehranipoorwork_va2eaeqbc5gxjbiopds5bzqfaaOn the Transition to Post-Quantum Cryptography in the Industrial Internet of Things
https://scholar.archive.org/work/m5jss3ijsrbybjsl7locjhlfru
Large-scale quantum computers will be able to efficiently solve the mathematical problems of currently deployed public-key cryptography, rendering RSA and elliptic-curve cryptosystems insecure in the near future. This looming threat necessitates the design, development, and standardization of cryptography that resists attacks from classical as well as quantum computers, so-called post-quantum cryptography (PQC). In fact, several standardization bodies are in the midst of standardizing PQC as the next generation of cryptography, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). But compared to current public-key cryptosystems, PQC primitives generally incur a higher cost in some metric: computational cost, storage requirements, or network bandwidth. As a result, their performance and design characteristics prevent them from being simple drop-in replacements for current public-key schemes. The impact of PQC, therefore, needs to be carefully evaluated when integrated into protocols and applications. With new cryptography standards on the horizon, one of the first domains expected to adopt these new standards are industrial control systems (ICS). Since their components have long life spans (≥ 15 years) and are increasingly interconnected to form an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), they require strong and long-lasting security guarantees. In turn, this raises the following question: How can a fast, reliable, and secure transition to upcoming PQC standards be ensured, especially in today's highly interconnected networks, such as IIoT? In this thesis, we identify, study, and investigate open challenges in order to integrate post-quantum cryptography into IIoT devices, protocols, and applications. First, we propose cryptographic agility as one of the most important prerequisites for the transition to PQC. Apart from the definition of three subtypes of cryptographic agility, we provide guidelines how cryptographic agility can be achieved and maintained in software-based IIoT applications. Second, our [...]Sebastian Paulwork_m5jss3ijsrbybjsl7locjhlfruSecurity Issues of Novel RSA Variant
https://scholar.archive.org/work/twz2zql52fadjhs37reeg6wxh4
The RSA is one of the current default cryptosystems that provides security with applications such as encryptions and digital signatures. It is important to further study the weak characteristics of the RSA to ensure correct utilisation in order not to be susceptible to adversaries. In this paper, we give detailed analysis on security of the Murru-Saettone variant of the RSA cryptosystem that utilised a cubic Pell ed − k p 2 + p + 1 q 2 + q + 1 = 1 as key equation and N = pq as RSA modulus. We propose some attacks on this variant when the prime difference |p−q| is small. Our first approach is to utilise the continued fractions algorithm to determine the parameter d which enables us to determine the secret p and q. Our second approach considers the Coppersmith's method and lattice basis reduction to factor the modulus N . Our attacks improve recent cryptanalyses on the cubic Pell equation variant of RSA. Furthermore, our attacks prove that under small prime difference scenario, the number of susceptible private exponents for the cubic Pell equation variant of RSA is much larger than the standard RSA.Abderrahmane Nitaj, Muhammad Rezal Bin Kamel Ariffin, Nurul Nur Hanisah Adenan, Terry Shue Chien Lau, Jiahui Chenwork_twz2zql52fadjhs37reeg6wxh4Private Decision Tree-based Disease Detection with Energy-Efficiency at Resource-constrained Medical User in Mobile Healthcare Network
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ahasq7pn5zddnlvsirl4doaasm
In mobile healthcare networks (MHN), the health cloud facilitates computer-aided remote disease detection services. However, medical users refrain from using outsourced disease detection due to concerns about the privacy and security of sensitive medical data. Hence privacy-preserving computing is needed for disease detection services, such as decision tree-based disease detection in MHN. Also, the decision tree-based disease detection algorithms may be confidential to the health cloud. Hence, a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme for private decision tree-based disease detection is required to preserve the privacy of both the user and the health cloud. FHE supports additive and multiplicative homomorphism. However, the existing homomorphic encryption schemes utilized in decision tree-based disease detection that ensure the privacy of the medical user and health cloud are computationally-intensive and energy-hungry at the edge devices. Hence the medical user finds it difficult to exploit the existing private decision tree-based disease detection services due to restrictions on battery capacity and computing resources. Therefore, this work proposes a protocol for private decision tree classification with low resource consumption (PDTC-LRC) on edge devices of medical users by considering decision tree parameters as confidential to the health cloud. An energy-efficient, additively homomorphic, symmetric key-based FHEcompatible Rivest scheme (FCRS) is developed for implementing PDTC-LRC. FCRS can be decrypted homomorphically at the health cloud to support additive and multiplicative homomorphism. Also, an energy and bandwidth-efficient secure integer comparison protocol is developed for realizing PDTC-LRC. Experiments on the Raspberry Pi 3B+ board validate the improved energy efficiency and real-time applicability of the proposed secure integer comparison protocol and decision tree classifier compared with similar schemes available in the literature. Simulation and mathematical analysis ensure that user and health cloud privacy requirements are achieved by maintaining the classification accuracy same as that of decision tree classification in the plain domain. INDEX TERMS mobile healthcare networks, privacy, decision tree algorithm, homomorphic encryption.Sona Alex, K. J. Dhanaraj, P. P. Deepthiwork_ahasq7pn5zddnlvsirl4doaasmTensorCrypto: High Throughput Acceleration of Lattice-based Cryptography Using Tensor Core on GPU
https://scholar.archive.org/work/bjzuffd4mvfvlfomtz6mwaigz4
Tensor core is a newly introduced hardware unit in NVIDIA GPU chips that allows matrix multiplication to be computed much faster than in the integer and floating-point units. In this paper, we show that for the first time, tensor core can be used to accelerate state-of-the-art lattice-based cryptosystems. We employed tensor core to speed up polynomial convolution, which is the most time consuming operation in lattice-based cryptosystems. Towards that aim, several parallel algorithms are proposed to allow the tensor core to handle flexible matrix sizes and ephemeral key pairs. Experimental results show that the polynomial convolution computed using the tensor core is at least 2× faster than the version implemented with conventional integer units of the NVIDIA GPU. The proposed tensorcore-based polynomial convolution technique was applied to NTRU, one of the finalists in NIST postquantum cryptography (PQC) standardization. It achieved 2.02×/1.98× (encapsulation) and 1.56×/1.90× (decapsulation) higher throughput on two parameter sets (ntruhps2048509 and ntruhps2048677), compared to the conventional integer-based implementations on a GPU. In particular, the proposed implementation techniques achieved throughput up to 793651 key encapsulations per second and 505051 decapsulations per second on a RTX2060 GPU. To demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed technique, we extend the implementation to other lattice-based cryptosystems that have a small modulus: LAC and two variant parameter sets in FrodoKEM. Considering that the IoT gateway devices and cloud servers need to handle massive connections from the sensor nodes, the proposed high throughput implementation on GPU is very useful in securing the IoT communication.Wai-Kong Lee, Hwajeong Seo, Zhenfei Zhang, Seong Oun Hwangwork_bjzuffd4mvfvlfomtz6mwaigz4Dilithium for Memory Constrained Devices
https://scholar.archive.org/work/aa77s6hqrfawtezhuqfgrlxsnu
We investigate the use of the Dilithium post-quantum digital signature scheme on memory-constrained systems. Reference and optimized implementations of Dilithium in the benchmarking framework pqm4 (Cortex-M4) require 50 -100 KiB of memory, demonstrating the significant challenge to use Dilithium on small IoT platforms. We show that compressing polynomials, using an alternative number theoretic transform, and falling back to the schoolbook method for certain multiplications reduces the memory footprint significantly. This results in the first implementation of Dilithium for which the recommended parameter set requires less than 7 KiB of memory for key and signature generation and less than 3 KiB of memory for signature verification. We also provide benchmark details of a portable implementation in order to estimate the performance impact when using these memory reduction methods.Joppe W. Bos, Joost Renes, Daan Sprenkelswork_aa77s6hqrfawtezhuqfgrlxsnuAnother Concrete Quantum Cryptanalysis of Binary Elliptic Curves
https://scholar.archive.org/work/yzhib5x2cnbx3ak36uwir5oycm
This paper presents concrete quantum cryptanalysis for binary elliptic curves for a time-efficient implementation perspective (i.e., reducing the circuit depth), complementing the previous research by Banegas et al., that focuses on the space-efficiency perspective (i.e., reducing the circuit width). To achieve the depth optimization, we propose an improvement to the existing circuit implementation of the Karatsuba multiplier and FLT-based inversion, then construct and analyze the resource in Qiskit quantum computer simulator. The proposed multiplier architecture, improving the quantum Karatsuba multiplier by Van Hoof et al., reduces the depth and yields lower number of CNOT gates that bounds to O(n log 2 (3) ) while maintaining a similar number of Toffoli gates and qubits. Furthermore, our improved FLT-based inversion reduces CNOT count and overall depth, with a tradeoff of higher qubit size. Finally, we employ the proposed multiplier and FLT-based inversion for performing quantum cryptanalysis of binary point addition as well as the complete Shor's algorithm for elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP). As a result, apart from depth reduction, we are also able to reduce up to 90% of the Toffoli gates required in a single-step point addition compared to prior work, leading to significant improvements and give a new insights on quantum cryptanalysis for a depth-optimized implementation.Dedy Septono Catur Putranto, Rini Wisnu Wardhani, Harashta Tatimma Larasati, Howon Kimwork_yzhib5x2cnbx3ak36uwir5oycmOpenSSLNTRU: Faster post-quantum TLS key exchange
https://scholar.archive.org/work/q2vpe4pv6nf2derj65oddn3r5i
Google's CECPQ1 experiment in 2016 integrated a post-quantum key-exchange algorithm, newhope1024, into TLS 1.2. The Google-Cloudflare CECPQ2 experiment in 2019 integrated a more efficient key-exchange algorithm, ntruhrss701, into TLS 1.3. This paper revisits the choices made in CECPQ2, and shows how to achieve higher performance for post-quantum key exchange in TLS 1.3 using a higher-security algorithm, sntrup761. Previous work had indicated that ntruhrss701 key generation was much faster than sntrup761 key generation, but this paper makes sntrup761 key generation much faster by generating a batch of keys at once. Batch key generation is invisible at the TLS protocol layer, but raises software-engineering questions regarding the difficulty of integrating batch key exchange into existing TLS libraries and applications. This paper shows that careful choices of software layers make it easy to integrate fast post-quantum software, including batch key exchange, into TLS with minor changes to TLS libraries and no changes to applications. As a demonstration of feasibility, this paper reports successful integration of its fast sntrup761 library, via a lightly patched OpenSSL, into an unmodified web browser and an unmodified TLS terminator. This paper also reports TLS 1.3 handshake benchmarks, achieving more TLS 1.3 handshakes per second than any software included in OpenSSL.Daniel J. Bernsteinwork_q2vpe4pv6nf2derj65oddn3r5iTue, 14 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMTEight Prime Numbers of Modified RSA Algorithm Method for More Secure Single Board Computer Implementation
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nzkuuutlufhw3ey4oetbxugdeq
RSA is the most popular public-key cryptography. The main strength of the algorithm is based on the difficulty of factoring in a large integer number. RSA has also been applied in a system with limited resource environments like single-board computers (SBC). To ensure data security, a recommendation to use a key size longer than 2048 bits generates challenges for implementing RSA in the SBC. This research proposes an EPNR (Eight Prime Numbers of Modified RSA) method, a modified double RSA based on eight prime numbers combined with the CRT method, to speed up the random key generation and decryption mechanism. The method is implemented in a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B+. The running time and security performances of the EPNR were analyzed and compared to the other models. Compared to the others model based on the standard RSA scheme, the proposed model is faster 21.78 times in a random key generation, 9.03 times in encryption and decryption processing. The EPNR has resistance to Wiener, statistical, and factorization attacks (GNFS and Fermat). Using standard RSA in the second encryption mechanism, the GNFS is not yet effective for attacking the proposed model. The modified Fermat Factorization algorithm is more difficult and needed more extra times for factoring a large composite number into eight prime numbers correctly. The method will be useful for implementing certificates authentication and distribution of the secret key. It is very suitable to enhance more secure RSA implementation in an SBC environment.Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan, Edi Winarko, Ahmad Ashariwork_nzkuuutlufhw3ey4oetbxugdeqSun, 12 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMTMasked Accelerators and Instruction Set Extensions for Post-Quantum Cryptography
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ssx3dpj5dnfrxfhgimrssyai5m
Side-channel attacks can break mathematically secure cryptographic systems leading to a major concern in applied cryptography. While the cryptanalysis and security evaluation of Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) have already received an increasing research effort, a cost analysis of efficient side-channel countermeasures is still lacking. In this work, we propose a masked HW/SW codesign of the NIST PQC finalists Kyber and Saber, suitable for their different characteristics. Among others, we present a novel masked ciphertext compression algorithm for non-power-of-two moduli. To accelerate linear performance bottlenecks, we developed a generic Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) multiplier, which, in contrast to previously published accelerators, is also efficient and suitable for schemes not based on NTT. For the critical non-linear operations, masked HW accelerators were developed, allowing a secure execution using RISC-V instruction set extensions. With the proposed design, we achieved a cycle count of K:214k/E:298k/D:313k for Kyber and K:233k/E:312k/D:351k for Saber with NIST Level III parameter sets. For the same parameter sets, the masking overhead for the first-order secure decapsulation operation including randomness generation is a factor of 4.48 for Kyber (D:1403k)and 2.60 for Saber (D:915k).Tim Fritzmann, Michiel Van Beirendonck, Debapriya Basu Roy, Patrick Karl, Thomas Schamberger, Ingrid Verbauwhede, Georg Siglwork_ssx3dpj5dnfrxfhgimrssyai5mFri, 19 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMTNew Semi-Prime Factorization and Application in Large RSA Key Attacks
https://scholar.archive.org/work/6vqzejyofffibdlb7splskjrva
Semi-prime factorization is an increasingly important number theoretic problem, since it is computationally intractable. Further, this property has been applied in public-key cryptography, such as the Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) encryption systems for secure digital communications. Hence, alternate approaches to solve the semi-prime factorization problem are proposed. Recently, Pythagorean tuples to factor semi-primes have been explored to consider Fermat's Christmas theorem, with the two squares having opposite parity. This paper is motivated by the property that the integer separating these two squares being odd reduces the search for semi-prime factorization by half. In this paper, we prove that if a Pythagorean quadruple is known and one of its squares represents a Pythagorean triple, then the semi-prime is factorized. The problem of semi-prime factorization is reduced to the problem of finding only one such sum of three squares to factorize a semi-prime. We modify the Lebesgue identity as the sum of four squares to obtain four sums of three squares. These are then expressed as four Pythagorean quadruples. The Brahmagupta–Fibonacci identity reduces these four Pythagorean quadruples to two Pythagorean triples. The greatest common divisors of the sides contained therein are the factors of the semi-prime. We then prove that to factor a semi-prime, it is sufficient that only one of these Pythagorean quadruples be known. We provide the algorithm of our proposed semi-prime factorization method, highlighting its complexity and comparative advantage of the solution space with Fermat's method. Our algorithm has the advantage when the factors of a semi-prime are congruent to 1 modulus 4. Illustrations of our method for real-world applications, such as factorization of the 768-bit number RSA-768, are established. Further, the computational viabilities, despite the mathematical constraints and the unexplored properties, are suggested as opportunities for future research.Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatramanwork_6vqzejyofffibdlb7splskjrvaFri, 12 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMTAnalysis of a Decentralised Digital Token Architecture for Public Transport
https://scholar.archive.org/work/6wqqdyj6mrgkjjy2pkeiltevgy
Digitisation is often viewed as beneficial to a user. Where originally people would physically have to identify to a service, pay for a ticket in cash, or go into a library to access a book, people can now achieve all of this through a click of a button. While these actions may seem functionally identical to their analogue counterparts, they come with one important difference. Namely, in the digital case, a user's actions are automatically recorded. The recording of user's interactions presents a problem because this information can be used outside the control of the person whom it concerns. This issue is only exacerbated by the centralisation of these aforementioned services' authentication mechanisms permitting the collection of even more data. This work aims to motivate the need and establish the feasibility for the application of a privacy-enhancing digital token management service to public transit. A proof-of-concept implementation of the Decentralised Digital Identity Architecture proposed by Goodell and Aste is developed. This implementation was optimised for the public transport use case. Finally, its performance is tested in a local environment to better understand the technical challenges and assess such a system's technical feasibility in a production setting. It was observed that for loads between 1 and 5 requests per second the proof-of-concept performs within acceptable limits with a maximum median response time of 438 milliseconds. Above 5 requests per second response times drastically increase due to hardware bottlenecks. It was concluded that the demonstrated throughput and latency shows that the system can feasibly compete with solutions currently in use. Yet, further work is needed to demonstrate these performance characteristics in an environment similar to that experienced in production.Oscar King, Geoffrey Goodellwork_6wqqdyj6mrgkjjy2pkeiltevgyFri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT