IA Scholar Query: Evolution of Information Production Processes and its Relation to the Lorenz Dominance Order.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgThu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440Breaking down the magnonic Wiedemann-Franz law in the hydrodynamic regime
https://scholar.archive.org/work/kfncr567o5dzfnyy2jgtdkg2hm
Recent experiments have shown an indication of a hydrodynamic magnon behavior in ultrapure ferromagnetic insulators; however, its direct observation is still lacking. Here, we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic equations and study the thermal and spin conductivities for such a magnon fluid. We reveal the drastic breakdown of the magnonic Wiedemann-Franz law as a hallmark of the hydrodynamics regime, which will become key evidence for the experimental realization of an emergent hydrodynamic magnon behavior. Therefore, our results pave the way towards the direct observation of magnon fluids.Ryotaro Sano, Mamoru Matsuowork_kfncr567o5dzfnyy2jgtdkg2hmThu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTStudies of quantum chromodynamics with jets at the CMS experiment at the LHC
https://scholar.archive.org/work/tl6cqxvdijhwbnd4wxd3l6sbii
Several people played a decisive role in accomplishing this thesis and helped me in dierent aspects. In Hamburg, I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to Patrick L.S. Connor for his invaluable contribution to this work and for training me to consider scientic research as a "share, help, learn, cross-check, enjoy" cycle. Besides developing the overall analysis framework, he was always reachable for help and support, making the work with him a continuous upskilling process. I am also extremely grateful to Paolo Gunnellini for his contributions to the analysis, but mainly for his crucial guidance during my rst steps in high energy physics and his availability to help whenever I needed to. At DESY, I am deeply indebted to Hannes Jung for all his hospitality and support. Apart from that, he also gave me the opportunity to work with his wonderful team, to whom I am also grateful. In particular, many thanks toParaskevas Gianneios, University Of Ioanninawork_tl6cqxvdijhwbnd4wxd3l6sbiiWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTSimulating the inflationary Universe: from single-field to the axion-U(1) model
https://scholar.archive.org/work/jnjqshrb35a6nnmqo2mjnk5bme
We present a nonlinear study of the inflationary epoch based on numerical lattice simulations. Lattice simulations are a well-known tool in primordial cosmology, and they have been extensively used to study the reheating epoch after inflation. We generalize this known machinery to the inflationary epoch. Being this the first simulation of the inflationary epoch much before the end of inflation, the first part of the thesis focuses on the minimal single-field model of inflation. We discuss the conceptual and technical ingredients needed to simulate inflation on a lattice. The simulation is used to reproduce the nearly scale-invariant spectrum of scalar perturbations, as well as the oscillations in the power spectrum caused by a step in the potential. In the second part, we focus on the more complicated axion-U(1) model of inflation and present the first lattice simulation of this model during the deep inflationary epoch. We use the simulation to discover new properties of primordial scalar perturbations from this model. In the linear regime of the theory, we find high-order non-Gaussianity (beyond trispectrum) to be key to describing the statistical properties of scalar perturbations. Conversely, we find perturbations to be nearly Gaussian in the nonlinear regime of the theory. This relaxes existing constraints from the overproduction of primordial black holes, allowing for a gravitational waves signal in the observable range of upcoming experiments such as LISA. Our results show that lattice simulations can be a powerful tool to study the inflationary epoch and its observational signatures.Angelo Caravanowork_jnjqshrb35a6nnmqo2mjnk5bmeTue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTEnsemble Kalman Methods: A Mean Field Perspective
https://scholar.archive.org/work/iyvmm22oongv3aylwgphbpuc3y
This paper provides a unifying mean field based framework for the derivation and analysis of ensemble Kalman methods. Both state estimation and parameter estimation problems are considered, and formulations in both discrete and continuous time are employed. For state estimation problems both the control and filtering approaches are studied; analogously, for parameter estimation (inverse) problems the optimization and Bayesian perspectives are both studied. The approach taken unifies a wide-ranging literature in the field, provides a framework for analysis of ensemble Kalman methods, and suggests open problems.Edoardo Calvello, Sebastian Reich, Andrew M. Stuartwork_iyvmm22oongv3aylwgphbpuc3yFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTFirst post-Newtonian correction to gravitational waves produced by compact binaries: How to compute relativistic corrections to gravitational waves using Feynman diagrams
https://scholar.archive.org/work/mj6674nbanbn5ewo5fmfx4jagm
The purpose of this thesis is to calculate the relativistic correction to the gravitational waves produced by compact binaries in the inspiral phase. The correction is up to the next to leading order, the so-called first post-Newtonian order (1PN), which are correctional terms proportional to (v/c)^2 compared to leading order, Newtonian, terms. These corrections are well known in the literature, even going beyond the first order corrections, so why is it computed again here? In later years, an alternative approach for computing these terms using effective field theory has emerged. This thesis investigates this approach by replicating it, and attempts to make this approach more accessible to those not familiar with effective field theories. It has been claimed that this approach greatly simplifies the complicated calculations of gravitational waveforms, and even provides the required intuition for 'physical understanding'. By this master student that was found not to be entirely correct. The calculations were made easier for those with a rich background in quantum field theory, but for those who are not well acquainted with quantum field theory this was not the case. It was, however, found to be a worthwhile method as a means for deepening one's understanding of gravity, and might provide a shorter route for some alternative theories of gravity to testable predictions.Vegard Undheimwork_mj6674nbanbn5ewo5fmfx4jagmFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTForecast combinations: an over 50-year review
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vnttsaiwzveizkbvbvl3vwis7i
Forecast combinations have flourished remarkably in the forecasting community and, in recent years, have become part of the mainstream of forecasting research and activities. Combining multiple forecasts produced from single (target) series is now widely used to improve accuracy through the integration of information gleaned from different sources, thereby mitigating the risk of identifying a single "best" forecast. Combination schemes have evolved from simple combination methods without estimation, to sophisticated methods involving time-varying weights, nonlinear combinations, correlations among components, and cross-learning. They include combining point forecasts and combining probabilistic forecasts. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the extensive literature on forecast combinations, together with reference to available open-source software implementations. We discuss the potential and limitations of various methods and highlight how these ideas have developed over time. Some important issues concerning the utility of forecast combinations are also surveyed. Finally, we conclude with current research gaps and potential insights for future research.Xiaoqian Wang, Rob J Hyndman, Feng Li, Yanfei Kangwork_vnttsaiwzveizkbvbvl3vwis7iFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTOpinion dynamics in social networks: From models to data
https://scholar.archive.org/work/pp5jbsslbza4njxcxxgbwrpd3a
Opinions are an integral part of how we perceive the world and each other. They shape collective action, playing a role in democratic processes, the evolution of norms, and cultural change. For decades, researchers in the social and natural sciences have tried to describe how shifting individual perspectives and social exchange lead to archetypal states of public opinion like consensus and polarization. Here we review some of the many contributions to the field, focusing both on idealized models of opinion dynamics, and attempts at validating them with observational data and controlled sociological experiments. By further closing the gap between models and data, these efforts may help us understand how to face current challenges that require the agreement of large groups of people in complex scenarios, such as economic inequality, climate change, and the ongoing fracture of the sociopolitical landscape.Antonio F. Peralta, János Kertész, Gerardo Iñiguezwork_pp5jbsslbza4njxcxxgbwrpd3aThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTApplications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Electronics
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wbvvhda6lrdztcp247s66rop2q
Electronic applications have expanded to encompass a variety of materials. In particular, allotropes of carbon interest researchers for their electronic applications. Knowledge of carbon allotropes and their applications has expanded significantly since the discovery of C60 Buckminsterfullerene in 1985, the discovery of multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes in the early 1990s, and the isolation of graphene in 2004. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have the potential to bring next-generation electronic devices to fruition. Such devices could be flexible, conformable, and inexpensive. SWNT-based electronics are promising for chemical and biological sensing applications, for example, where high carrier mobilities are unnecessary, and material conformity and inexpensive processing are significant advantages. Considerable progress has been made in separating semiconducting SWNTs from metallic SWNTs, enabling SWNT incorporation into semiconducting electronic technologies. Selective sorting of semiconducting SWNTs using π-conjugated polymers is an effective and efficient technique to enrich large quantities of ultra-pure semiconducting SWNTs. Following semiconducting enrichment, SWNTs can be incorporated into electronic devices. This thesis focuses on the enrichment of semiconducting SWNTs via conjugated polymer extraction and incorporating the resulting polymer-SWNT dispersions into thin-film transistors (TFTs). Novel copolymers were investigated for their capacity to selectively sort and disperse large-diameter sc-SWNTs synthesized using the plasma torch technique. Absorption and Raman spectroscopy were employed to monitor the efficacy of the conjugated polymer extraction procedure. Following enrichment, the polymer-SWNT dispersions were incorporated into TFTs. The interaction between the conjugated polymer and the SWNT and the conjugated polymer and dielectric was an essential component of TFT optimization. Furthermore, the procedure of sorting and dispersing sc-SWNTs is investigated for its effect on TFT p [...]Brendan Mirka, University, Mywork_wbvvhda6lrdztcp247s66rop2qThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTIntrinsic correlations of galaxy sizes in a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation
https://scholar.archive.org/work/itqkw7unxzhkba4xaawuaa257q
Residuals between measured galactic radii and those predicted by the Fundamental Plane (FP) are possible tracers of weak lensing magnification. However, observations have shown these to be systematically correlated with the large-scale structure. We use the Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to analyse these intrinsic size correlations (ISCs) for both elliptical (early-type) and spiral (late-type) galaxies at z=0.06. We fit separate FPs to each sample, finding similarly distributed radius residuals, λ, in each case. We find persistent λλ correlations over three-dimensional separations 0.5-17 h^-1Mpc in the case of spiral galaxies, at >3σ significance. When relaxing a mass-selection, applied for better agreement with galaxy clustering constraints, the spiral λλ detection strengthens to 9σ; we detect a 5σ density-λ correlation; and we observe intrinsically-large spirals to cluster more strongly than small spirals over scales ≲10 h^-1Mpc, at >5σ significance. Conversely, and in agreement with the literature, we observe lower-mass, intrinsically-small ellipticals to cluster more strongly than their large counterparts over scales 0.5-17 h^-1Mpc, at >5σ significance. We model λλ correlations using a phenomenological non-linear size model, and predict the level of contamination for cosmic convergence analyses. We find the systematic contribution to be of similar order to, or dominant over the cosmological signal. We make a mock measurement of an intrinsic, systematic contribution to the projected surface mass density Σ(r) and find statistically significant, low-amplitude, positive (negative) contributions from lower-mass spirals (ellipticals), which may be of concern for large-scale (≳ 7 h^-1 Mpc) measurements.Harry Johnston, Dana Sophia Westbeek, Sjoerd Weide, Nora Elisa Chisari, Yohan Dubois, Julien Devriendt, Christophe Pichonwork_itqkw7unxzhkba4xaawuaa257qThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTFinancing the Polycentric Energy Transition - Definitions, literature review and research gaps
https://scholar.archive.org/work/icmiwlh2dng7vgboievwwtr7ai
The transformation of the energy system will require massive investments in the coming years. The total global investment requirement from 2018-2050 is estimated at 110 trillion US dollars. The magnitude of the investment needs makes it clear: investments are needed by all actors. An increasingly important role is played by citizens. They can invest individually and become prosumers (self-consumers of self-generated electricity) or they can organize themselves in bottom-up models such as Energy Communities, Community Energy or Local Energy Initiatives and jointly finance the investment costs. But how is financing actually defined? What are the financing instruments? And what are the connections between financing (-instruments) and the energy transition? And what role do bottom-up models play in the energy transition? The aim of this paper is to trace and illustrate the links between financing, energy and the current role of bottom-up models in financing of the energy transition. Financing can be understood in two different ways. In an energy economic sense, financing means the refinancing of capital employed. This includes energy sector regulations such as energy market design, environmental policies or private contracts. In a managerial sense, financing means the procurement of funds. A distinction can be made here between private and public financing. Not least because of the great importance of the regulatory framework, both aspects - energy policy instruments and financing in the managerial sense - are interrelated: The type and scope of the design of the financial requirement (e.g., the implemented support programs) directly influence the coverage of the financial requirements in the managerial sense. In the context of this study, we provide a brief overview of the various financing instruments. The financing instruments have already been intensively researched. For bottom-up models it emerges that risk-minimizing, transparent instruments such as FITs are advantageous. However, the question arises as [...]Lars Holstenkamp, Jan Wiesenthal, Najamul Saqib Memonwork_icmiwlh2dng7vgboievwwtr7aiThu, 22 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTThe Objective Function: Science and Society in the Age of Machine Intelligence
https://scholar.archive.org/work/2unyehnlczcpfnkcxvnjp6wxye
Machine intelligence, or the use of complex computational and statistical practices to make predictions and classifications based on data representations of phenomena, has been applied to domains as disparate as criminal justice, commerce, medicine, media and the arts, mechanical engineering, among others. How has machine intelligence become able to glide so freely across, and to make such waves for, these domains? In this dissertation, I take up that question by ethnographically engaging with how the authority of machine learning has been constructed such that it can influence so many domains, and I investigate what the consequences are of it being able to do so. By examining the workplace practices of the applied machine learning researchers who produce machine intelligence, those they work with, and the artifacts they produce. The dissertation begins by arguing that machine intelligence proceeds from a naive form of empiricism with ties to positivist intellectual traditions of the 17th and 18th centuries. This naive empiricism eschews other forms of knowledge and theory formation in order for applied machine learning researchers to enact data performances that bring objects of analysis into existence as entities capable of being subjected to machine intelligence. By data performances, I mean generative enactments which bring into existence that which machine intelligence purports to analyze or describe. The enactment of data performances is analyzed as an agential cut into a representational field that produces both stable claims about the world and the interpretive frame in which those claims can hold true. The dissertation also examines how machine intelligence depends upon a range of accommodations from other institutions and organizations, from data collection and processing to organizational commitments to support the work of applied machine learning researchers.Emanuel Mosswork_2unyehnlczcpfnkcxvnjp6wxyeWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTNon-Intrusive Reduced Models based on Operator Inference for Chaotic Systems
https://scholar.archive.org/work/bfunqzmsibafpi7wbxfpd7lte4
This work explores the physics-driven machine learning technique Operator Inference (OpInf) for predicting the state of chaotic dynamical systems. OpInf provides a non-intrusive approach to infer approximations of polynomial operators in reduced space without having access to the full order operators appearing in discretized models. Datasets for the physics systems are generated using conventional numerical solvers and then projected to a low-dimensional space via Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In latent space, a least-squares problem is set to fit a quadratic polynomial operator, which is subsequently employed in a time-integration scheme in order to produce extrapolations in the same space. Once solved, the inverse PCA operation is applied to reconstruct the extrapolations in the original space. The quality of the OpInf predictions is assessed via the Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) metric from which the Valid Prediction Time (VPT) is computed. Numerical experiments considering the chaotic systems Lorenz 96 and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation show promising forecasting capabilities of the OpInf reduced order models with VPT ranges that outperform state-of-the-art machine learning methods such as backpropagation and reservoir computing recurrent neural networks [1], as well as Markov neural operators [2].João Lucas de Sousa Almeida, Arthur Cancellieri Pires, Klaus Feine Vaz Cid, Alberto Costa Nogueira Juniorwork_bfunqzmsibafpi7wbxfpd7lte4Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTSuperradiance and subradiance in a gas of two-level atoms
https://scholar.archive.org/work/3b24gdlgbvavfhnojtu2nkvtoq
Cooperative effects describe atomic ensembles with exchange of photonic excitations, such as dipole-dipole interactions. As a particular example, superradiance arises from spontaneous emission when this exchange leads to constructive interference of the emitted photons. Here, we introduce an integrated method for studying cooperative radiation in many-body systems. This method, which allows to study extended systems with arbitrarily large number of particles can be formulated by an effective, nonlinear, two-atom master equation that describes the dynamics using a closed form which treats single- and many-body terms on an equal footing. We apply this method to a homogeneous gas of initially inverted two-level atoms, and demonstrate the appearance of both superradiance and subradiance, identifying a many-body coherence term as the source of these cooperative effects. We describe the many-body induced broadening - which is analytically found to scale with the optical depth of the system - and light shifts, and distinguish spontaneous effects from induced ones. In addition, we theoretically predict the time-dependence of subradiance, and the phase change of the radiated field during the cooperative decay.Hanzhen Ma, Oriol Rubies-Bigorda, Susanne F. Yelinwork_3b24gdlgbvavfhnojtu2nkvtoqWed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTGenerative Modelling With Inverse Heat Dissipation
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nldtkkagtnbhhcz6cuobqklypm
While diffusion models have shown great success in image generation, their noise-inverting generative process does not explicitly consider the structure of images, such as their inherent multi-scale nature. Inspired by diffusion models and the desirability of coarse-to-fine modelling, we propose a new model that generates images through iteratively inverting the heat equation, a PDE that locally erases fine-scale information when run over the 2D plane of the image. We interpret the solution of the forward heat equation as a variational approximation in a diffusion-like latent variable model. We point out emergent qualitative properties not seen in diffusion models, such as disentanglement of overall colour and shape in images and aspects of neural network interpretability. Spectral analysis on natural images elucidates connections to diffusion models and reveals implicit inductive biases in them.Severi Rissanen, Markus Heinonen, Arno Solinwork_nldtkkagtnbhhcz6cuobqklypmTue, 20 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTDistributionally robust trading strategies for renewable energy producers
https://scholar.archive.org/work/hzky2qvzpbbz5ffvkqzdzeg4im
Renewable energy generation is to be offered through electricity markets, quite some time in advance. This then leads to a problem of decision-making under uncertainty, which may be seen as a newsvendor problem. Contrarily to the conventional case for which underage and overage penalties are known, such penalties in the case of electricity markets are unknown, and difficult to estimate. In addition, one is actually only penalized for either overage or underage, not both. Consequently, we look at a slightly different form of a newsvendor problem, for a price-taker participant offering in electricity markets, which we refer to as Bernoulli newsvendor problem. After showing that its solution is similar to the classical newsvendor problem, we then introduce distributionally robust versions, with ambiguity possibly about both the probabilistic forecasts for power generation and the chance of success of the Bernoulli variable. All these distributionally robust Bernoulli newsvendor problems admit closed-form solutions. We finally use simulation studies, as well as a real-world case-study application, to illustrate the workings and benefits from the approach.Pierre Pinsonwork_hzky2qvzpbbz5ffvkqzdzeg4imSun, 18 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTGenetically encoded non-canonical amino acids reveal asynchronous dark reversion of chromophore, backbone and side-chains in EL222
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ff5yuspw5fa2bdqbigovte43fe
Photoreceptors containing the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain elicit biological responses upon excitation of their flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore by blue light. The mechanism and kinetics of dark-state recovery are not well understood. Here we incorporated the non-canonical amino acid p-cyanophenylalanine (CNF) by genetic code expansion technology at forty-five positions of the bacterial transcription factor EL222. Screening of light-induced changes in infrared (IR) absorption frequency, electric field and hydration of the nitrile groups identified residues CNF31 and CNF35 as reporters of monomer/oligomer and caged/decaged equilibria, respectively. Time-resolved multi-probe UV/Visible and IR spectroscopy experiments of the lit-to-dark transition revealed four dynamical events. Predominantly, rearrangements around the A′α helix interface (CNF31 and CNF35) precede FMN-cysteinyl adduct scission, folding of α-helices (amide bands), and relaxation of residue CNF151. This study illustrates the importance of characterizing all parts of a protein and suggests a key role for the N-terminal A′α extension of the LOV domain in controlling EL222 photocycle length.Aditya S. Chaudhari, Aditi Chatterjee, Caterina A.O. Domingos, Prokopis C. Andrikopoulos, Yingliang Liu, Inger Andersson, Bohdan Schneider, Víctor A. Lórenz-Fonfría, Gustavo Fuerteswork_ff5yuspw5fa2bdqbigovte43feSat, 17 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTFinding unstable periodic orbits for nonlinear dynamical systems using polynomial optimisation
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ofdrlw4v6rf7zf6ylretgfua74
Computing unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) for systems governed by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a fundamental problem in the study of nonlinear dynamical systems that exhibit chaotic dynamics. Success of any existing method to compute UPOs relies on the availability of very good initial guesses for both the UPO and its time period. This thesis presents a computational framework for computing UPOs that are extremal, in the sense that they optimise the infinite-time average of a certain observable. Constituting this framework are two novel techniques. The first is a method to localise extremal UPOs for polynomial ODE systems that does not rely on numerical integration. The UPO search procedure relies on polynomial optimisation to construct nonnegative polynomials whose sublevel sets approximately localise parts of the extremal periodic orbit. Points inside the relevant sublevel sets can then be computed efficiently through direct nonlinear optimisation. Such points provide good initial conditions for UPO computations with existing algorithms. The second technique involves the addition of a control term to the original polynomial ODE system to reduce the instability of the extremal UPO, and, in some cases, to provably stabilise it. This control methodology produces a family of controlled systems parametrised by a control amplitude, to which existing UPO-finding algorithms are often more easily applied. The practical potential of these techniques is demonstrated by applying them to find extremal UPOs for a nine-dimensional model of sinusoidally forced shear flow, an extended version of the Lorenz system, and two different three-dimensional chaotic ODE systems. Extensions of the framework to non-polynomial and Hamiltonian ODE systems are also discussed.Mayur Venkatram Lakshmi, Sergei Chernyshenko, Engineering And Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)work_ofdrlw4v6rf7zf6ylretgfua74Fri, 16 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTCatching the Waves in the Sea of Noise: Squeezed Light in Advanced LIGO and Beyond
https://scholar.archive.org/work/uvxjwtyhtnfazojcntdpxdpot4
In 2015, LIGO's first gravitational wave detection opened up a new window to the universe and marks the beginning of the gravitation-wave astronomy era. In 2017, the first binary neutron star coalescence with electromagnetic counterparts was detected and marked the beginning of multi-messenger astronomy. The advanced LIGO detector has become so sensitive that its performance is broadly limited by quantum noise -- the random behavior of photons that are dictated by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle called shot noise. Even though the idea of injecting squeezed light to help manipulate the quantum noise in LIGO was first proposed in 1981, it took nearly 4 decades before the squeezed light source was integrated as part of a normal operation in advanced LIGO. This thesis firstly highlights work done on the squeezed light source, sensing and control implementation at LIGO Hanford. The result is a robust system that runs 100% of the detector observation time and an improvement of ~3 dB in the detector sensitivity. With ~50% more of the universe volume covered scientists were able to detect new events such as a black hole-neutron star coalescence and a mysterious astronomical object that falls within the mass-gap region. The squeezed light source installed in advanced LIGO is frequency independent. Shot noise improvement at high frequency was achieved at an expense of quantum noise performance at low frequency, the radiation pressure noise. In 2020-2021, the aLIGO detector is being upgraded to an A+ detector with the goal of 6 dB squeezing. A 300-meter long filter cavity will be integrated as part of the squeezed light system to allow for frequency-dependent squeezing. This thesis secondly proposes an alternative sensing and control scheme for the squeezed light source that utilizes the filter cavity, resulting in a better phase noise performance as both phase noise and optical losses can degrade the amount of squeezing the detector can achieve. LIGO detectors were designed to be sensitive to the coalescence of black [...]Nutsinee Kijbunchoo, University, The Australian Nationalwork_uvxjwtyhtnfazojcntdpxdpot4Thu, 15 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTTechnoscience and the Artificial Evil: Ethical Aspect
https://scholar.archive.org/work/5wjzlpthvffs7ebguvmr4wzdka
This article considers the ethical dimension of technological science (technoscience), namely, the problem of the applicability of the categories of 'good' and 'evil' to the functioning of new technologies. Aspects of evil brought about by the introduction of new technologies (i.e. lack/scarcity of resources, devaluation of human labour, ignorance of/inability to use technical tools, violations of the measure and harmony of life, etc.) are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to a new form of evil, namely artificial/technological evil. The article argues that the emergence of such evils is associated with the growing scale of human intervention in the natural course of things and with recent advances in technology. Dangers related to the uncontrolled development of technological science along many axes of human existence are analysed. The authors conclude that overcoming artificial evil is possible via a transition from a man-made to an anthropogenic (intellectual and humanistic) form of civilisation in which the achievements of technoscience serve not the self-destruction of mankind but the discovery of essential human forces.OKSANA CHURSINOVA, MARIA SINELNIKOVAwork_5wjzlpthvffs7ebguvmr4wzdkaTue, 13 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTRe-reading Carl Menger's Grundsätze – another book that "cries out to be surpassed"*
https://scholar.archive.org/work/oxaaitenejcelinlrc4taqwerm
The paper re-assesses (the non-monetary part of) Carl Menger's Grunds€ atze (1871). It begins by pointing out that representatives of the so-called "German Use Value School" elaborated the theory of marginal utility prior to Menger. The paper then turns to Menger's criticism of the theories of value and distribution of the classical economists and draws the attention to some important misunderstandings by him. After a summary account of Menger's alternative construction, the paper informs about the criticisms put forward against it especially by his two main students, Eugen von B€ ohm-Bawerk and Friedrich von Wieser. It is then argued that contrary to Menger's view, relative prices reflect inter alia the substances that "transmigrate" into commodities in the course of production. Despite the numerous objections levelled at it, the Grunds€ atze are nevertheless a "great" work, because it invites to correct what is problematic in it and develop what is sound.Heinz D. Kurzwork_oxaaitenejcelinlrc4taqwermTue, 13 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT