IA Scholar Query: A Practical Decision Procedure for Arithmetic with Function Symbols.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help14403 Die 1990er Jahre – auf dem Weg zur Cyberpolis
https://scholar.archive.org/work/mrift7rzerbsrpdyftywqtuk5q
Die Geschehnisse der 1960er und 1970er Jahre bilden eine Art Basis für das Geschehen in den 1990er Jahren, in denen das kommerzielle Internet populär wird und sich langsam abzuzeichnen beginnt, dass es in Form des World Wide Web zu einem zentralen gesellschaftlichen Medium werden wird. Auch in den 1990er Jahren handelt es sich nicht um eine absehbare und quasi-kausale Verkettung von Ereignissen, sondern um ein von vielen Interessen geformtes Geschehen, dessen Kontexte sich zudem fundamental von den früheren Entwicklungen unterscheiden. Recht stabil bleibt lediglich eine latent kybernetische Rhetorik, die als etabliertes Hintergrundrauschen jedoch oft gar nicht mehr namentlich mit der Kybernetik in Verbindung gebracht wird, sondern in vielen Bereichen zu einem Allgemeinplatz geworden ist. Mit dem Ende der rechtlichen Einschränkungen bezüglich der kommerziellen Nutzung des Internet werden insbesondere ab Mitte der 1990er Jahre ökonomische Kontextualisierungen zum Dreh-und Angelpunkt der Entwicklung, die zugleich von einer starken Rhetorik der gesellschaftlichen Transformation begleitet werden. Unter dem Primat einer ubiquitären Ökonomisierung der Gesellschaft verschmelzen ein universalisierter Marktradikalismus mit den (Selbst-)Steuerungsversprechen kybernetischer Feedback-Modelle und den mit ihnen assoziierten Logiken des Kalten Krieges zu neuen soziotechnischen Visionen, die zwar rhetorisch stellenweise an die Emanzipationsbestrebungen der (Computer-)Counterculture anknüpfen, aber faktisch nicht mehr viel mit ihnen gemein haben. Vor diesem Hintergrund konkretisiert sich die Verbreitung der Netzwerktechnologien auf eine spezifische, hochgradig kommerzialisierte Weise, die bis heute ihre Wahrnehmung prägt, da sie schlicht zu einer Selbstverständlichkeit geworden ist, die offenbar kaum noch in Frage gestellt werden kann. Das vorliegende Kapitel skizziert diese ›Kybernetisierung der Gesellschaft‹ unter dem Primat der Ökonomie, wie sie im Rahmen der Verbreitung des kommerzialisierten Internets stattgefunden hat. Die damit verbundenen Entwicklungen sind vielschichtig und künden von tiefgreifenden gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen, die bis heute nachwirken. Zu Beginn des Kapitels werden die Verbreitungsdynamik und die privatisierten ›Go-vernance‹-Strukturen des privatisierten Internet vorgestellt. Dann wird in aller Kürze das ›kybernetische Hintergrundrauschen‹ in den Diskursen um Wissen, Ökonomie und ›Governance‹ umrissen, da dies für die entstehenden soziotechnischen Visionen be-Martin Donnerwork_mrift7rzerbsrpdyftywqtuk5qSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTIntegrating prediction in mean-variance portfolio optimization
https://scholar.archive.org/work/v7jpmr3arjcxhp64pu74iuwj4m
Prediction models are traditionally optimized independently from their use in the asset allocation decision-making process. We address this shortcoming and present a framework for integrating regression prediction models in a mean-variance optimization (MVO) setting. Closed-form analytical solutions are provided for the unconstrained and equality constrained MVO case. For the general inequality constrained case, we make use of recent advances in neural-network architecture for efficient optimization of batch quadratic-programs. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous study of integrating prediction in a mean-variance portfolio optimization setting. We present several historical simulations using both synthetic and global futures data to demonstrate the benefits of the integrated approach.Andrew Butler, Roy H. Kwonwork_v7jpmr3arjcxhp64pu74iuwj4mWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTBalancing covariates in randomized experiments with the Gram-Schmidt Walk design
https://scholar.archive.org/work/tpsxer6pnbdrxhhbj5fljsmtfy
The design of experiments involves an inescapable compromise between covariate balance and robustness. This paper provides a formalization of this trade-off and introduces an experimental design that allows experimenters to navigate it. The design is specified by a robustness parameter that bounds the worst-case mean squared error of an estimator of the average treatment effect. Subject to the experimenter's desired level of robustness, the design aims to simultaneously balance all linear functions of potentially many covariates. The achieved level of balance is better than previously known possible and considerably better than what a fully random assignment would produce. We show that the mean squared error of the estimator is bounded by the minimum of the loss function of an implicit ridge regression of the potential outcomes on the covariates. The estimator does not itself conduct covariate adjustment, so one can interpret the approach as regression adjustment by design. Finally, we provide both a central limit theorem and non-asymptotic tail bounds for the estimator, which facilitate the construction of confidence intervals.Christopher Harshaw and Fredrik Sävje and Daniel Spielman and Peng Zhangwork_tpsxer6pnbdrxhhbj5fljsmtfyWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTF–J
https://scholar.archive.org/work/cn4pwk4efnaa3ba27vpt6ux6ca
Fabergé, Peter Carl (1846Carl ( -1920)) . Russian jeweller, of French descent. He achieved fame by the ingenuity and extravagance of the jewelled objects (especially Easter eggs) he devised for the Russian nobility and the tsar in an age of ostentatious extravagance which ended on the outbreak of World War I. He died in Switzerland.work_cn4pwk4efnaa3ba27vpt6ux6caWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTValidation of Atmospheric Absorption Models within the 20–60 GHz Band by Simultaneous Radiosonde and Microwave Observations: The Advantage of Using ECS Formalism
https://scholar.archive.org/work/l5klwl4q3rci7mwbryciurek6y
The precise calculation of atmospheric absorption in a microwave band is highly important for atmospheric remote-sensing with ground-based and satellite-borne radiometers, as it is a key element in procedures for temperature, humidity or trace gas concentration retrieval. The accuracy of the absorption model directly affects the accuracy of the retrieved information and reliability of the resulting forecasts. In this study, we analyze the difference between observed and simulated microwave spectra obtained from more than four years of microwave and radiosonde observations over Nizhny Novgorod (56.2°N, 44°E). We focus on zenith-measured microwave data in the 20–60 GHz frequency range in clear-sky conditions. The use of a conventional absorption model in simulations leads to a significant difference in frequency channels within the 51–54 GHz range, while calculations employing a more accurate model based on the Energy Corrected Sudden (ECS) formalism for molecular oxygen absorption reduces the difference several-fold.Mikhail V. Belikovich, Dmitriy S. Makarov, Evgeny A. Serov, Mikhail Yu. Kulikov, Alexander M. Feiginwork_l5klwl4q3rci7mwbryciurek6yTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTQuantitative approaches in support of the early development of T-cell redirecting therapies
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vstfqmbrdvcxzlznhiabye3gfm
1.1 Background .Arthur Jérôme Van De Vyver, Universität Des Saarlandeswork_vstfqmbrdvcxzlznhiabye3gfmTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTSmart Cities and Architectural Structures: Communicational and Informational Space
https://scholar.archive.org/work/cbbp3g3255en3kvyflybpyig4y
The expectations for shaping the urban landscape toward the ethical and aesthetic values of democracy are seen as the main challenge of an intelligent environment, made possible via information and communication technologies. Consequently, architecture's tendency to embrace digital media strives to create innovative and sustainable infrastructure. This approach aims for an argumentative theoretical analysis of aesthetics and communication sciences. The focus is on the context that continuously evolves living traditions persuaded by innovation that modifies and facilitates the evolution of society. The approach is also supposed to be a constantly evolving practice that engenders interaction between past, present, and future, configuring a unique urban landscape. The goal is about the metropolis as a collective achievement, seeking innovation through technologies while preserving tradition. Therefore, the convergence between architecture, technology, and new media requires the consideration of two viewpoints in this analysis. The first is the adopted architectural spatial models. The second is the transformative structure through new media, creating realities, intelligent environments, and interactive communities. Under these two directions, the artificial environment and imagined configuration through digital media are discussed, considering that technology overcame natural boundaries: the leitmotif of human cultural development.Christiane Wagnerwork_cbbp3g3255en3kvyflybpyig4yTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTTransformers Can Be Translated to First-Order Logic with Majority Quantifiers
https://scholar.archive.org/work/e6qqhdy3wrckdm6fpxrsbytvcy
Characterizing the implicit structure of the computation within neural networks is a foundational problem in the area of deep learning interpretability. Can their inner decision process be captured symbolically in some familiar logic? We show that any transformer neural network can be translated into an equivalent fixed-size first-order logic formula which may also use majority quantifiers. The idea is to simulate transformers with highly uniform threshold circuits and leverage known theoretical connections between circuits and logic. Our findings also reveal the surprising fact that the entire transformer computation can be reduced merely to the division of two (large) integers. While our results are most pertinent for transformers, they apply equally to a broader class of neural network architectures, namely those with a fixed-depth uniform computation graph made up of standard neural net components, which includes feedforward and convolutional networks.William Merrill, Ashish Sabharwalwork_e6qqhdy3wrckdm6fpxrsbytvcyTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2017
https://scholar.archive.org/work/uowfgqp7hzh2lltvflrcjwdtsm
Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction-Polarization methods for the production of polarized light. Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of He-Ne laser Holography-Principle of Recording and reconstruction of images. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Types of optical fibers and modes of propagation. Attenuation, Block diagram discussion of point to point communication, applications. Module -4 10 hours Crystal Structure: Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices. Expression for interplanar spacing. Coordination number. Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law, Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer. Polymorphism and Allotropy. Crystal Structure of Diamond. Module -5 10 hours ELEMENTS OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Subject Code 17SEC13/23 IA Marks 50 Number of lecture hours/week 04 Exam Marks 50 Total number of lecture hours 50 Credits 04 Course Objectives: 1. To provide basic concepts D.C circuits and circuit analysis techniques 2. To provide knowledge on A.C circuit fundamental techniques 3. To understand construction and operation of BJT and Junction FET 4. Explain the different modes of communications from wired to wireless and the computing involved. 5. To provide fundamental knowledge of Digital Logic. Course Outcomes: CO1: Understand concepts of electrical circuits and elements. CO2: Apply basic electric laws in solving circuit problems. CO3: Analyse simple circuits containing transistors CO4: Understand concept of cellular wireless networks. CO5: Understand Number systems and design basic digital circuits.BTECH.MECHwork_uowfgqp7hzh2lltvflrcjwdtsmMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2019
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4ze
On completion of this course, students will have knowledge in: • CO1.Basics of electrochemistry. Classical & modern batteries and fuel cells. CO2. Causes & effects of corrosion of metals and control of corrosion. Modification of surface properties of metals to develop resistance to corrosion, wear, tear, impact etc. by electroplating and electroless plating. CO3. Production & consumption of energy for industrialization of country and living standards of people. Utilization of solar energy for different useful forms of energy. CO4. Understanding Phase rule and instrumental techniques and its applications. CO5.Over viewing of synthesis, properties and applications of nanomaterials.BTECH.CSwork_wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4zeMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/gze4zbzdt5a6xe6yg6qrijqlca
BTECH.ECEwork_gze4zbzdt5a6xe6yg6qrijqlcaMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTMultiple Query Satisfiability of Constrained Horn Clauses
https://scholar.archive.org/work/erb23iwnifgyflw6lgucuvaxui
We address the problem of checking the satisfiability of a set of constrained Horn clauses (CHCs) possibly including more than one query. We propose a transformation technique that takes as input a set of CHCs, including a set of queries, and returns as output a new set of CHCs, such that the transformed CHCs are satisfiable if and only if so are the original ones, and the transformed CHCs incorporate in each new query suitable information coming from the other ones so that the CHC satisfiability algorithm is able to exploit the relationships among all queries. We show that our proposed technique is effective on a non trivial benchmark of sets of CHCs that encode many verification problems for programs manipulating algebraic data types such as lists and trees.Emanuele De Angeliswork_erb23iwnifgyflw6lgucuvaxuiMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ggji2kgovvhtlh6nq7bk7mukh4
Module 2 Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Powerpoint presentation: Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Video: Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Self-study material: Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. 9 Hours Module 3 Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors-Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Powerpoint presentation: Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors. Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Video: Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Self-study material: Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism 9 Hours Module 4 Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Expression for inter -planar spacing. Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Powerpoint presentation: Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Self-study material: Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. 9 Hours Module 5 Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate. Diffraction grating -Grating element -Grating equation -Construction of grating-Reflection and transmission grating. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Powerpoint presentation: Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate. Diffraction grating -Grating element -Grating equation -Construction of grating-Reflection and transmission grating. Self-study material: Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. 9 Hours C PROGRAMMING Subject Code 21SCS12 IA Marks 50 Number of Lecture Hours/Week 2 (L) + 2 (T) Exam Marks 50 Total Number of Lecture Hours 45 Total Marks 100 Credits 03 Exam Hours 2 Course Objectives: 1. To understand the various steps in program development. 2. To learn the syntax and semantics of C programming language. 3. To learn the usage of structured programming approach in solving problems. Course Outcomes: CO1: On completion of this course students will be able to write algorithms and to draw flowcharts for solving problems. CO2: On completion of this course students will be able to convert the algorithms/flowcharts to C programs. CO3: Students will be able to code and test a given logic in C programming language. CO4: Students will be able to decompose a problem into functions and to develop modular reusable code. CO5: Students will be able to use arrays, pointers, strings and structures to write C programs. Module 1 Introduction to Algorithms: Steps to solve logical and numerical problems. Representation of Algorithm, Flowchart/Pseudo code with examples, Program design and structured programming Introduction to C Programming Language: variables, Syntax and Logical Errors in compilation, object and executable code, Operators, expressions and precedence, Expression evaluation, Storage classes, type conversion, The main method and command line arguments. Bitwise operations: Bitwise AND, OR, XOR and NOT operators. Conditional Branching and Loops: Writing and evaluation of conditionals and consequent branching with if, if-else, switch-case, ternary operator, goto, Iteration with for, while, do-while loops I/O: Simple input and output with scanf and printf, formatted I/O, Introduction to stdin, stdout and stderr. Command line arguments. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 2 Arrays, Strings, Structures and Pointers: Arrays: one and two-dimensional arrays, creating, accessing and manipulating elements of arrays. Strings: Introduction to strings, handling strings as array of characters, basic string functions available in C (strlen, strcat, strcpy, strstr etc.), arrays of strings. Structures: Defining structures, initializing structures, unions, Array of structures. Pointers: Idea of pointers, Defining pointers, Pointers to Arrays and Structures, Use of Pointers in self referential structures, usage of self referential structures in linked list (no implementation) Enumeration data type. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. Module 3 9 Hours Preprocessor and File handling in C: Preprocessor: Commonly used Preprocessor commands like include, define, undef, if, ifdef, ifndef Files: Text and Binary files, Creating and Reading and writing text and binary files, Appending data to existing files, Writing and reading structures using binary files, Random access using fseek, ftell and rewind functions. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 4 Function and Dynamic Memory Allocation: Functions: Designing structured programs, Declaring a function, Signature of a function, Parameters and return type of a function, passing parameters to functions, call by value, Passing arrays to functions, passing pointers to functions, idea of call by reference, Some C standard functions and libraries Recursion: Simple programs, such as Finding Factorial, Fibonacci series etc., Limitations of Recursive functions. Dynamic memory allocation: Allocating and freeing memory, Allocating memory for arrays of different data types. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk using PPT and Demo to explain the concept. 9 Hours Module 5 C PROGRAMMING LABORATORY Subject Code 21SCSL12 IA Marks 25 Number of Practical Hours/Week 1 (T) + 2 (L) Exam Marks 25 Total Number of Practical Hours 36 Total Marks 50 Credits 02 Exam Hours 3 Course Objectives: 1. To describe the basics of computer and understand the problem-solving aspect. 2. To demonstrate the algorithm and flow chart for the given problem. 3. To introduce students to the basic knowledge of programming fundamentals of C language. 4. To impart writing skill of C programming to the students and solving problems. 5. To impart the concepts like looping, array, functions, pointers, file, structure. Course Outcomes: CO1: Understand the problem solving to write efficient algorithms to solve real time problems. CO2: Understand and use various constructs of the programming language such as conditionals, iteration, and recursion. CO3: Implement your algorithms to build programs in the C programming language. CO4: Use data structures like arrays, linked lists, and stacks to solve various problems. CO5: Understand and use file handling in the C programming language. EXPERIMENTS: Implement the following programs with WINDOWS / LINUX platform using appropriate C compiler. Course Objectives: 1. To provide basic concepts D.C circuits and circuit analysis techniques 2. To provide knowledge on A.C circuit fundamental techniques 3. To understand construction and operation of BJT and Junction FET 4. Explain the different modes of communications from wired to wireless and the computing involved. 5. To provide fundamental knowledge of Digital Logic. Course Outcomes: CO1: Understand concepts of electrical circuits and elements. CO2: Apply basic electric laws in solving circuit problems. CO3: Analyze simple circuits containing transistors CO4: Understand concept of cellular wireless networks. CO5: Understand Number systems and design basic digital circuits.BTECH.MECHwork_ggji2kgovvhtlh6nq7bk7mukh4Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTHuman Randomness in the Rock-Paper-Scissors Game
https://scholar.archive.org/work/br2w5xu76jcp5cabjear753cbe
In this study, we investigated the human capacity to generate randomness in decision-making processes using the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) game. The randomness of the time series was evaluated using the time-series data of RPS moves made by 500 subjects who played 50 consecutive RPS games. The indices used for evaluation were the Lempel–Ziv complexity and a determinism index obtained from a recurrence plot, and these indicators represent the complexity and determinism of the time series, respectively. The acquired human RPS time-series data were compared to a pseudorandom RPS sequence generated by the Mersenne Twister and the RPS time series generated by the RPS game's strategy learned using the human RPS time series acquired via genetic programming. The results exhibited clear differences in randomness among the pseudorandom number series, the human-generated series, and the AI-generated series.Takahiro Komai, Hiroaki Kurokawa, Song-Ju Kimwork_br2w5xu76jcp5cabjear753cbeMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2021
https://scholar.archive.org/work/n7rhmaerpvfrhha4draeqwscs4
Course Objectives: 1. Learn and understand basic concepts and principles of Physics. 2. Make students familiar with latest trends in material science research and learn about novel materials and its applications. 3. Make students confident in analyzing engineering problems and apply its solutions effectively and meaningfully. 4. Gain knowledge in interference and diffraction of light and its applications in new technology. Course Outcomes: CO1: Learn and understand more about basic principles and to develop problem solving skills and implementation in technology. CO2: Study material properties and their application and its use in engineering applications and studies. CO3: Understand crystal structure and applications to boost the technical skills and its applications. CO4: Apply light phenomena in new technology. Module 1 Classical free electron theory-Free-electron concept (Drift velocity, Thermal velocity, Mean collision time, Mean free path, relaxation time) -Expression for electrical conductivity-Failure of classical free electron theory. Quantum free electron theory, Assumptions, Fermi factor, Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Expression for electrical conductivity based on quantum free electron theory. Merits of quantum free electron theory. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity -Specific heat -Thermionic emission. Hall effect (Qualitative) -Wiedemann-Franz law. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Classical free electron theory-Free-electron concept (Drift velocity, Thermal velocity, Mean collision time, Mean free path, relaxation time) -Expression for electrical conductivity-Failure of classical free electron theory. Powerpoint presentation: Quantum free electron theory, Assumptions, Fermi factor, Fermi-Dirac Statistics. Expression for electrical conductivity based on quantum free electron theory. Merits of quantum free electron theory. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity -Specific heat -Thermionic emission. Wiedemann-Franz law. Self-study material: Hall effect (Qualitative) 9 Hours Module 2 Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Principle, Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Interaction of radiation with matter -Absorption-Spontaneous emission -Stimulated emission-Einstein's coefficients (expression for energy density). Requisites of a Laser system. Condition for laser action. Propagation mechanism in optical fibers. Angle of acceptance. Numerical aperture. Powerpoint presentation: Types of optical fibers-Step index and Graded index fiber. Modes of propagation-Single mode and Multimode fibers. Video: Construction and working of He-Ne laser. Self-study material: Attenuation-Attenuation mechanisms. 9 Hours Module 3 Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors-Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Temperature dependence of resistivity in metals and superconducting materials. Effect of magnetic field (Meissner effect). Isotope effect -Type I and Type II superconductors-Temperature dependence of critical field. BCS theory (qualitative). High temperature superconductors-Powerpoint presentation: Josephson effect -SQUID-Applications of superconductors. Magnetic dipole-dipole moment-flux density-magnetic field intensity-Intensity of magnetization-magnetic permeability-susceptibility-relation between permeability and susceptibility. Hysteresis-soft and hard magnetic materials. Video: Maglev vehicles (qualitative). Self-study material: Classification of magnetic materials-Dia, Para, Ferromagnetism 9 Hours Module 4 Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Expression for interplanar spacing. Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Teaching Methodology: Chalk and talk method: Direction and planes in a crystal. Miller indices -Determination of Miller indices of a plane. Powerpoint presentation: Atoms per unit cell -Co-ordination number. Relation between atomic radius and lattice constant -Atomic packing factors (SC, FCC, BCC). Bragg's law. Determination of crystal structure using Bragg's X-ray diffractometer -X-ray spectrum. Self-study material: Amorphous and crystalline materials-Space lattice, Bravais lattice-Unit cell, primitive cell. Lattice parameters. Crystal systems. 9 Hours Module 5 Interference of light -Superposition of two coherent waves-Constructive and destructive interference. Interference in thin films -Wedge shaped thin film-Air wedge -Application to find the diameter of a thin wire. Newton's rings -Application to find the refractive index of a liquid. Diffraction of light -Classes of diffraction -Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. Fresnel theory of half period zone -Zone plate.BTECH.CSwork_n7rhmaerpvfrhha4draeqwscs4Mon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2019
https://scholar.archive.org/work/g6qfzbclcfe6pobzwry66zimou
On completion of this course, students will have knowledge in: • CO1.Basics of electrochemistry. Classical & modern batteries and fuel cells. CO2. Causes & effects of corrosion of metals and control of corrosion. Modification of surface properties of metals to develop resistance to corrosion, wear, tear, impact etc. by electroplating and electroless plating. CO3. Production & consumption of energy for industrialization of country and living standards of people. Utilization of solar energy for different useful forms of energy. CO4. Understanding Phase rule and instrumental techniques and its applications. CO5.Over viewing of synthesis, properties and applications of nanomaterials.BTECH.MECHwork_g6qfzbclcfe6pobzwry66zimouMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTActive volume: An architecture for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computers with limited non-local connections
https://scholar.archive.org/work/bn5ufifdg5gedaernazflyc56y
In existing general-purpose architectures for surface-code-based fault-tolerant quantum computers, the cost of a quantum computation is determined by the circuit volume, i.e., the number of qubits multiplied by the number of non-Clifford gates. We introduce an architecture using non-2D-local connections in which the cost does not scale with the number of qubits, and instead only with the number of logical operations. Each logical operation has an associated active volume, such that the cost of a quantum computation can be quantified as a sum of active volumes of all operations. For quantum computations with thousands of logical qubits, the active volume can be orders of magnitude lower than the circuit volume. Importantly, the architecture does not require all-to-all connectivity between N logical qubits. Instead, each logical qubit is connected to O(log N) other sites. As an example, we show that, using the same number of logical qubits, a 2048-bit factoring algorithm can be executed 44 times faster than on a general-purpose architecture without non-local connections. With photonic qubits, long-range connections are available and we show how photonic components can be used to construct a fusion-based active-volume quantum computer.Daniel Litinski, Naomi Nickersonwork_bn5ufifdg5gedaernazflyc56yMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTOpen Source Variational Quantum Eigensolver Extension of the Quantum Learning Machine (QLM) for Quantum Chemistry
https://scholar.archive.org/work/774zvmkbbvcxxbd3iknlxytuky
Quantum Chemistry (QC) is one of the most promising applications of Quantum Computing. However, present quantum processing units (QPUs) are still subject to large errors. Therefore, noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) hardware is limited in terms of qubits counts and circuit depths. Specific algorithms such as Variational Quantum Eigensolvers (VQEs) can potentially overcome such issues. We introduce here a novel open-source QC package, denoted Open-VQE, providing tools for using and developing chemically-inspired adaptive methods derived from Unitary Coupled Cluster (UCC). It facilitates the development and testing of VQE algorithms. It is able to use the Atos Quantum Learning Machine (QLM), a general quantum programming framework enabling to write, optimize and simulate quantum computing programs. Along with Open-VQE, we introduce myQLM-Fermion, a new open-source module (that includes the key QLM ressources that are important for QC developments (fermionic second quantization tools etc...). The Open-VQE package extends therefore QLM to QC providing: (i) the functions to generate the different types of excitations beyond the commonly used UCCSD ansätz;(ii) a new implementation of the "adaptive derivative assembled pseudo-Trotter method" (ADAPT-VQE), written in simple class structure python codes. Interoperability with other major quantum programming frameworks is ensured thanks to myQLM, which allows users to easily build their own code and execute it on existing QPUs. The combined Open-VQE/myQLM-Fermion quantum simulator facilitates the implementation, tests and developments of variational quantum algorithms towards choosing the best compromise to run QC computations on present quantum computers while offering the possibility to test large molecules. We provide extensive benchmarks for several molecules associated to qubit counts ranging from 4 up to 24.Mohammad Haidar, Marko J. Rančić, Thomas Ayral, Yvon Maday, Jean-Philip Piquemalwork_774zvmkbbvcxxbd3iknlxytukyMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTSimulation Intelligence: Towards a New Generation of Scientific Methods
https://scholar.archive.org/work/rfujm43y4ngcnml5emnvjksbjy
The original "Seven Motifs" set forth a roadmap of essential methods for the field of scientific computing, where a motif is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and data movement. We present the "Nine Motifs of Simulation Intelligence", a roadmap for the development and integration of the essential algorithms necessary for a merger of scientific computing, scientific simulation, and artificial intelligence. We call this merger simulation intelligence (SI), for short. We argue the motifs of simulation intelligence are interconnected and interdependent, much like the components within the layers of an operating system. Using this metaphor, we explore the nature of each layer of the simulation intelligence operating system stack (SI-stack) and the motifs therein: (1) Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling; (2) Surrogate modeling and emulation; (3) Simulation-based inference; (4) Causal modeling and inference; (5) Agent-based modeling; (6) Probabilistic programming; (7) Differentiable programming; (8) Open-ended optimization; (9) Machine programming. We believe coordinated efforts between motifs offers immense opportunity to accelerate scientific discovery, from solving inverse problems in synthetic biology and climate science, to directing nuclear energy experiments and predicting emergent behavior in socioeconomic settings. We elaborate on each layer of the SI-stack, detailing the state-of-art methods, presenting examples to highlight challenges and opportunities, and advocating for specific ways to advance the motifs and the synergies from their combinations. Advancing and integrating these technologies can enable a robust and efficient hypothesis-simulation-analysis type of scientific method, which we introduce with several use-cases for human-machine teaming and automated science.Alexander Lavin, David Krakauer, Hector Zenil, Justin Gottschlich, Tim Mattson, Johann Brehmer, Anima Anandkumar, Sanjay Choudry, Kamil Rocki, Atılım Güneş Baydin, Carina Prunkl, Brooks Paige, Olexandr Isayev, Erik Peterson, Peter L. McMahon, Jakob Macke, Kyle Cranmer, Jiaxin Zhang, Haruko Wainwright, Adi Hanuka, Manuela Veloso, Samuel Assefa, Stephan Zheng, Avi Pfefferwork_rfujm43y4ngcnml5emnvjksbjySun, 27 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTReAct: Synergizing Reasoning and Acting in Language Models
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vddrpuca7ravrltiwjbc5qhnda
While large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive capabilities across tasks in language understanding and interactive decision making, their abilities for reasoning (e.g. chain-of-thought prompting) and acting (e.g. action plan generation) have primarily been studied as separate topics. In this paper, we explore the use of LLMs to generate both reasoning traces and task-specific actions in an interleaved manner, allowing for greater synergy between the two: reasoning traces help the model induce, track, and update action plans as well as handle exceptions, while actions allow it to interface with external sources, such as knowledge bases or environments, to gather additional information. We apply our approach, named ReAct, to a diverse set of language and decision making tasks and demonstrate its effectiveness over state-of-the-art baselines, as well as improved human interpretability and trustworthiness over methods without reasoning or acting components. Concretely, on question answering (HotpotQA) and fact verification (Fever), ReAct overcomes issues of hallucination and error propagation prevalent in chain-of-thought reasoning by interacting with a simple Wikipedia API, and generates human-like task-solving trajectories that are more interpretable than baselines without reasoning traces. On two interactive decision making benchmarks (ALFWorld and WebShop), ReAct outperforms imitation and reinforcement learning methods by an absolute success rate of 34% and 10% respectively, while being prompted with only one or two in-context examples. Project site with code: https://react-lm.github.ioShunyu Yao, Jeffrey Zhao, Dian Yu, Nan Du, Izhak Shafran, Karthik Narasimhan, Yuan Caowork_vddrpuca7ravrltiwjbc5qhndaSun, 27 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT