IA Scholar Query: A New Method for Undecidability Proofs of First Order Theories.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgTue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440Idealist Individualism or Indigenous Cosmology; Finding Entanglement across Species and Strata
https://scholar.archive.org/work/w2v7ljgv7revfou3scvw77nuza
Science and technology have been associated with modern Enlightenment, in a manner that elevated the rational mind over emotions and the body, a separation of the subjective mind from the object of observation, universal categories, objective observation, and linear causality. These assumptions, consolidated by Descartes and then Kant, have underpinned the philosophies of science, economics, policy, and political theory. They have shaped the modern world and enabled corporate freedom to exploit all 'resources' in the name of consumerism and global trade. Idealism has alienated subjective rationality from an idealised universal created world. In contrast, ancient indigenous ways of knowing are emerging as better exemplars of the interrelationship between individuals, communities, and organic and anorganic life forms. Celtic shapeshifters and praise poems forge an interwoven dance of geology, weather, plants, animals, and humanity with wisdom and politics. The Māori concept of whakapapa is the kin relations of everything, tied into complex claves as a taxonomy of familial ties. Animism was understood as pagan misidentification by modernity, but if the alienation set out by modern linear physics is severed, then the intra and inter-relationship of strata, atmosphere, ocean, and species are better relayed by indigenous philosophy than by outdated, colonial, modern assumptions. Celtic and Māori pantheism show us how entangled we are, and how special relationships are in place that last across generations.Ruth Irwinwork_w2v7ljgv7revfou3scvw77nuzaTue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTFinite model theory for pseudovarieties and universal algebra: preservation, definability and complexity
https://scholar.archive.org/work/dkj3ubga7rhwpgump2bhcobpni
We explore new interactions between finite model theory and a number of classical streams of universal algebra and semigroup theory. After refocussing some finite model theoretic tools in universal algebraic context, we present a number of results. A key result is an example of a finite algebra whose variety is not finitely axiomatisable in first order logic, but which has first order definable finite membership problem. This algebra witnesses the simultaneous failure of the Łos-Tarski Theorem, the SP-preservation theorem and Birkhoff's HSP-preservation theorem at the finite level as well as providing a negative solution to the first order formulation of the long-standing Eilenberg Schützenberger problem. The example also shows that a pseudovariety without any finite pseudo-identity basis may be finitely axiomatisable in first order logic. Other results include the undecidability of deciding first order definability of the pseudovariety of a finite algebra and a mapping from any fixed template constraint satisfaction problem to a first order equivalent variety membership problem, thereby providing examples of variety membership problems complete in each of the classes , , _p(), (provided they are nonempty), and infinitely many others (depending on complexity-theoretic assumptions).Lucy Ham, Marcel Jacksonwork_dkj3ubga7rhwpgump2bhcobpniMon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTsymQV: Automated Symbolic Verification of Quantum Programs
https://scholar.archive.org/work/kby4tq62ljdxfknw2r44nmwypu
We present symQV, a symbolic execution framework for writing and verifying quantum computations in the quantum circuit model. symQV can automatically verify that a quantum program complies with a first-order specification. We formally introduce a symbolic quantum program model. This allows to encode the verification problem in an SMT formula, which can then be checked with a delta-complete decision procedure. We also propose an abstraction technique to speed up the verification process. Experimental results show that the abstraction improves symQV's scalability by an order of magnitude to quantum programs with 24 qubits (a 2^24-dimensional state space).Fabian Bauer-Marquart, Stefan Leue, Christian Schillingwork_kby4tq62ljdxfknw2r44nmwypuMon, 05 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTAsynchronous Control-State Choreographies
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wbjdhr6cobei3ewitvdijebuwy
Choreographies prescribe the rendez-vous synchronisation of messages in a system of communicating finite state machines. Such a system is called realisable, if the traces of the prescribed communication coincide with those of the asynchronous system of peers, where the communication channels either use FIFO queues or multiset mailboxes. In a recent article realisability was characterised by two necessary conditions that together are sufficient. A simple consequence is that realisability in the presence of a choreography becomes decidable. In this article we extend this work by generalising choreographies to control-state choreographies, which enable parallelism. We redefine P2P systems on grounds of control-state machines and show that a control-state choreography is equivalent to the rendez-vous compositions of its peers and that language-synchronisability coincides with synchronisability. These results are used to characterise realisability of control-state choreographies. As for the case of FSM-based choreographies we prove two necessary conditions: a sequence condition and a choice condition. Then we also show that these two conditions together are sufficient for the realisability of control-state choreographies.Klaus-Dieter Schewe and Yamine Ait-Ameur and Sarah Benyagoubwork_wbjdhr6cobei3ewitvdijebuwySat, 03 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTA complexity perspective on fluid mechanics
https://scholar.archive.org/work/lwkxzoij2rcqhk62pj3hnlc7by
This article attempts to use the ideas from the field of complexity sciences to revisit the classical field of fluid mechanics. For almost a century, the mathematical self-consistency of Navier-Stokes equations has remained elusive to the community of functional analysts, who posed the Navier-Stokes problem as one of the seven millennium problems in the dawn of 21st century. This article attempts to trace back the historical developments of fluid mechanics as a discipline and explain the consequences of not rationalising one of the commonly agreed upon tenets - continuum hypothesis - in the community. The article argues that 'fluids' can be treated as 'emergent' in nature, in that the atoms and molecules in the nanometre length scale can likely be correlated with the continuum physics at the microscale. If this is the case, then one might start trying to find a theoretical framework that models the emergence of fluids from atoms, effectively solving the multi-scale problem using a single abstract framework. Cantor set with layers N (N can have up to two orders of magnitude) is presented as a potential contender (analytical framework) for connecting the energy in molecular level C_1 at length scale l_cut to the energy at continuum level C_N with length scale L. Apart from fluid mechanics, Cantor set is shown to represent the conceptual understanding of VLSI hardware design (N=5). Apart from Cantor set, an experimental technique of architecting metafluids is also shown to solve emergence experimentally (i.e. connect physics at specific lower scales to higher scales).Saksham Sharma, Giulia Marcucci, Adnan Mahmudwork_lwkxzoij2rcqhk62pj3hnlc7bySat, 03 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTAn introduction to optimization under uncertainty – A short survey
https://scholar.archive.org/work/jn7snnl2gbbt5k6fspuvs2stoi
Optimization equips engineers and scientists in a variety of fields with the ability to transcribe their problems into a generic formulation and receive optimal solutions with relative ease. Industries ranging from aerospace to robotics continue to benefit from advancements in optimization theory and the associated algorithmic developments. Nowadays, optimization is used in real time on autonomous systems acting in safety critical situations, such as self-driving vehicles. It has become increasingly more important to produce robust solutions by incorporating uncertainty into optimization programs. This paper provides a short survey about the state of the art in optimization under uncertainty. The paper begins with a brief overview of the main classes of optimization without uncertainty. The rest of the paper focuses on the different methods for handling both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty. Many of the applications discussed in this paper are within the domain of control. The goal of this survey paper is to briefly touch upon the state of the art in a variety of different methods and refer the reader to other literature for more in-depth treatments of the topics discussed here.Keivan Shariatmadar, Kaizheng Wang, Calvin R. Hubbard, Hans Hallez, David Moenswork_jn7snnl2gbbt5k6fspuvs2stoiThu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTDifferentiable Fuzzy 𝒜ℒ𝒞: A Neural-Symbolic Representation Language for Symbol Grounding
https://scholar.archive.org/work/imgt5uscmbe57iz4ogqhc44tle
Neural-symbolic computing aims at integrating robust neural learning and sound symbolic reasoning into a single framework, so as to leverage the complementary strengths of both of these, seemingly unrelated (maybe even contradictory) AI paradigms. The central challenge in neural-symbolic computing is to unify the formulation of neural learning and symbolic reasoning into a single framework with common semantics, that is, to seek a joint representation between a neural model and a logical theory that can support the basic grounding learned by the neural model and also stick to the semantics of the logical theory. In this paper, we propose differentiable fuzzy 𝒜ℒ𝒞 (DF-𝒜ℒ𝒞) for this role, as a neural-symbolic representation language with the desired semantics. DF-𝒜ℒ𝒞 unifies the description logic 𝒜ℒ𝒞 and neural models for symbol grounding; in particular, it infuses an 𝒜ℒ𝒞 knowledge base into neural models through differentiable concept and role embeddings. We define a hierarchical loss to the constraint that the grounding learned by neural models must be semantically consistent with 𝒜ℒ𝒞 knowledge bases. And we find that capturing the semantics in grounding solely by maximizing satisfiability cannot revise grounding rationally. We further define a rule-based loss for DF adapting to symbol grounding problems. The experiment results show that DF-𝒜ℒ𝒞 with rule-based loss can improve the performance of image object detectors in an unsupervised learning way, even in low-resource situations.Xuan Wu, Xinhao Zhu, Yizheng Zhao, Xinyu Daiwork_imgt5uscmbe57iz4ogqhc44tleThu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTComponent-based synthesis of motion planning algorithms
https://scholar.archive.org/work/w7v3cn5fdfcapj23nnegkjqsee
Combinatory Logic Synthesis generates data or runnable programs according to formal type specifications. Synthesis results are composed based on a user-specified repository of components, which brings several advantages for representing spaces of high variability. This work suggests strategies to manage the resulting variations by proposing a domain-specific brute-force search and a machine learning-based optimization procedure. The brute-force search involves the iterative generation and evaluation of machining strategies. In contrast, machine learning optimization uses statistical models to enable the exploration of the design space. The approaches involve synthesizing programs and meta-programs that manipulate, run, and evaluate programs. The methodologies are applied to the domain of motion planning algorithms, and they include the configuration of programs belonging to different algorithmic families. The study of the domain led to the identification of variability points and possible variations. Proof-of-concept repositories represent these variability points and incorporate them into their semantic structure. The selected algorithmic families involve specific computation steps or data structures, and corresponding software components represent possible variations. Experimental results demonstrate that CLS enables synthesis-driven domain-specific optimization procedures to solve complex problems by exploring spaces of high variability.Tristan Schäfer, Technische Universität Dortmundwork_w7v3cn5fdfcapj23nnegkjqseeThu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTNon-Deterministic Approximation Fixpoint Theory and Its Application in Disjunctive Logic Programming
https://scholar.archive.org/work/jcfafsfllzfmvhndijxcfkppce
Approximation fixpoint theory (AFT) is an abstract and general algebraic framework for studying the semantics of nonmonotonic logics. It provides a unifying study of the semantics of different formalisms for nonmonotonic reasoning, such as logic programming, default logic and autoepistemic logic. In this paper, we extend AFT to dealing with non-deterministic constructs that allow to handle indefinite information, represented e.g. by disjunctive formulas. This is done by generalizing the main constructions and corresponding results of AFT to non-deterministic operators, whose ranges are sets of elements rather than single elements. The applicability and usefulness of this generalization is illustrated in the context of disjunctive logic programming.Jesse Heyninck and Ofer Arieli and Bart Bogaertswork_jcfafsfllzfmvhndijxcfkppceThu, 01 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTThe galaxy of Coxeter groups
https://scholar.archive.org/work/qiueaojuvbbz5hhxljnkeqrl7i
In this paper we introduce the galaxy of Coxeter groups -- an infinite dimensional, locally finite, ranked simplicial complex which captures isomorphisms between Coxeter systems. In doing so, we would like to suggest a new framework to study the isomorphism problem for Coxeter groups. We prove some structural results about this space, provide a full characterization in small ranks and propose many questions. In addition we survey known tools, results and conjectures. Along the way we show profinite rigidity of triangle Coxeter groups -- a result which is possibly of independent interest.Yuri Santos Rego, Petra Schwerwork_qiueaojuvbbz5hhxljnkeqrl7iWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTA steady diet of images. The European migrant crisis, border policy and political aesthetics
https://scholar.archive.org/work/lmjtfax4d5hdtor7rzyespoc6m
This thesis sits at the ever-expanding margins of borders studies, focusing on the cultural and aesthetic significance of border constructions and regimes. Whilst building upon a base of key modern geopolitical literature, it engages with a reflection on whether the ongoing European Crisis is one of migrants, of borders, or of European identity itself. Events since 2015,and the European Union's (EU)flawed response, challenge its vision of being a normative power in global politics. Through a lack of Union solidarity and ongoing evidence of hypocrisy, it is clear that the (re)fencing of Europe has become a Rorschach test for the continent as much as it has for the individual member states. From this flows a discussion around counter-hegemonic method, employing the concepts of political aesthetics, especially through visual regimes of news media and photojournalism. If political writings traditionally deal with the state and aesthetical writings with art and drama, the blending of the two enable to present new perspectives of the concept of Europe's crisis. The necroaesthetics discussed deal with both the bodies of migrants, and the teichopolitical spaces of camps and (re)fenced borders. By concentrating on the violence of borders as racialised contact zones in their multiple and expanding manifestations , this approach helps to challenge and critique governmental narratives related to migration and its perceived threat to the political class. This can be seen through the European memento mori of a century of camps and barbed wire which provoke the hallucinatory presence of previous war images, and border barriers of the last century.Richard A. Vogtwork_lmjtfax4d5hdtor7rzyespoc6mWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTBalancing covariates in randomized experiments with the Gram-Schmidt Walk design
https://scholar.archive.org/work/tpsxer6pnbdrxhhbj5fljsmtfy
The design of experiments involves an inescapable compromise between covariate balance and robustness. This paper provides a formalization of this trade-off and introduces an experimental design that allows experimenters to navigate it. The design is specified by a robustness parameter that bounds the worst-case mean squared error of an estimator of the average treatment effect. Subject to the experimenter's desired level of robustness, the design aims to simultaneously balance all linear functions of potentially many covariates. The achieved level of balance is better than previously known possible and considerably better than what a fully random assignment would produce. We show that the mean squared error of the estimator is bounded by the minimum of the loss function of an implicit ridge regression of the potential outcomes on the covariates. The estimator does not itself conduct covariate adjustment, so one can interpret the approach as regression adjustment by design. Finally, we provide both a central limit theorem and non-asymptotic tail bounds for the estimator, which facilitate the construction of confidence intervals.Christopher Harshaw and Fredrik Sävje and Daniel Spielman and Peng Zhangwork_tpsxer6pnbdrxhhbj5fljsmtfyWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTK–O
https://scholar.archive.org/work/lyfs4ardhngutaxyikydcq7rnu
Kabila, Laurent-Desiré . Congolese politician. A guerilla and bandit for 30 years, his forces overthrew *Mobutu in July 1997 and he became President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). Assassinated in January 2001 by his bodyguard, 135 people were tried, mostly convicted but apparently not executed. His son Joseph Kabila Kabange (1971-) was President of the DRC 2001-19. In 2018, a corrupt and violent election was won by an opposition candidate Félix Tshisekedi; a bizarre result that appeared to be a democratic transition but was engineered to guarantee Kabila's continuing influence and preservation of his family's wealth.work_lyfs4ardhngutaxyikydcq7rnuWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTF–J
https://scholar.archive.org/work/cn4pwk4efnaa3ba27vpt6ux6ca
Fabergé, Peter Carl (1846Carl ( -1920)) . Russian jeweller, of French descent. He achieved fame by the ingenuity and extravagance of the jewelled objects (especially Easter eggs) he devised for the Russian nobility and the tsar in an age of ostentatious extravagance which ended on the outbreak of World War I. He died in Switzerland.work_cn4pwk4efnaa3ba27vpt6ux6caWed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTSimulations for Event-Clock Automata
https://scholar.archive.org/work/efqfqlg6jjhm7f7vvfer7dnimm
Event-clock automata are a well-known subclass of timed automata which enjoy admirable theoretical properties, e.g., determinizability, and are practically useful to capture timed specifications. However, unlike for timed automata, there exist no implementations for event-clock automata. A main reason for this is the difficulty in adapting zone-based algorithms, critical in the timed automata setting, to the event-clock automata setting. This difficulty was recently studied in [Geeraerts et al 2011,2014], where the authors proposed a solution using zone extrapolations. In this article, we propose a different zone-based algorithm to solve the reachability problem for event-clock automata, using simulations for finiteness. A surprising consequence of our result is that for event-predicting automata, the subclass of event-clock automata that only use prophecy clocks, we obtain finiteness even without any simulations. For general event-clock automata, our new algorithm exploits the G-simulation framework, which is the coarsest known simulation relation for reachability, and has been recently used for advances in other extensions of timed automata.S Akshay, Paul Gastin, R Govind, B Srivathsanwork_efqfqlg6jjhm7f7vvfer7dnimmTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTPeano: Learning Formal Mathematical Reasoning
https://scholar.archive.org/work/dcvuw32aazfghe7hi7r67mohhq
General mathematical reasoning is computationally undecidable, but humans routinely solve new problems. Moreover, discoveries developed over centuries are taught to subsequent generations quickly. What structure enables this, and how might that inform automated mathematical reasoning? We posit that central to both puzzles is the structure of procedural abstractions underlying mathematics. We explore this idea in a case study on 5 sections of beginning algebra on the Khan Academy platform. To define a computational foundation, we introduce Peano, a theorem-proving environment where the set of valid actions at any point is finite. We use Peano to formalize introductory algebra problems and axioms, obtaining well-defined search problems. We observe existing reinforcement learning methods for symbolic reasoning to be insufficient to solve harder problems. Adding the ability to induce reusable abstractions ("tactics") from its own solutions allows an agent to make steady progress, solving all problems. Furthermore, these abstractions induce an order to the problems, seen at random during training. The recovered order has significant agreement with the expert-designed Khan Academy curriculum, and second-generation agents trained on the recovered curriculum learn significantly faster. These results illustrate the synergistic role of abstractions and curricula in the cultural transmission of mathematics.Gabriel Poesia, Noah D. Goodmanwork_dcvuw32aazfghe7hi7r67mohhqTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTA Finite Axiomatisation of Finite-State Automata Using String Diagrams
https://scholar.archive.org/work/nknr4pld7vdoje67wq6kovycri
We develop a fully diagrammatic approach to finite-state automata, based on reinterpreting their usual state-transition graphical representation as a two-dimensional syntax of string diagrams. In this setting, we are able to provide a complete equational theory for language equivalence, with two notable features. First, the proposed axiomatisation is finite. Second, the Kleene star is a derived concept, as it can be decomposed into more primitive algebraic blocks.Robin Piedeleu, Fabio Zanasiwork_nknr4pld7vdoje67wq6kovycriTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTA counterexample to the periodic tiling conjecture
https://scholar.archive.org/work/izptcbxnbvednknzay27dtahsi
The periodic tiling conjecture asserts that any finite subset of a lattice ℤ^d which tiles that lattice by translations, in fact tiles periodically. In this work we disprove this conjecture for sufficiently large d, which also implies a disproof of the corresponding conjecture for Euclidean spaces ℝ^d. In fact, we also obtain a counterexample in a group of the form ℤ^2 × G_0 for some finite abelian 2-group G_0. Our methods rely on encoding a "Sudoku puzzle" whose rows and other non-horizontal lines are constrained to lie in a certain class of "2-adically structured functions", in terms of certain functional equations that can be encoded in turn as a single tiling equation, and then demonstrating that solutions to this Sudoku puzzle exist but are all non-periodic.Rachel Greenfeld, Terence Taowork_izptcbxnbvednknzay27dtahsiTue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT2019
https://scholar.archive.org/work/wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4ze
On completion of this course, students will have knowledge in: • CO1.Basics of electrochemistry. Classical & modern batteries and fuel cells. CO2. Causes & effects of corrosion of metals and control of corrosion. Modification of surface properties of metals to develop resistance to corrosion, wear, tear, impact etc. by electroplating and electroless plating. CO3. Production & consumption of energy for industrialization of country and living standards of people. Utilization of solar energy for different useful forms of energy. CO4. Understanding Phase rule and instrumental techniques and its applications. CO5.Over viewing of synthesis, properties and applications of nanomaterials.BTECH.CSwork_wcy47hfvvvdwvfgnwx2cuak4zeMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTDifferentially Private Multivariate Statistics with an Application to Contingency Table Analysis
https://scholar.archive.org/work/xvhr4nbrbvfjpm45ouqe6kddpm
Differential privacy (DP) has become a rigorous central concept in privacy protection for the past decade. Among various notions of DP, f-DP is an easily interpretable and informative concept that tightly captures privacy level by comparing trade-off functions obtained from the hypothetical test of how well the mechanism recognizes individual information in the dataset. We adopt the Gaussian differential privacy (GDP), a canonical parametric family of f-DP. The Gaussian mechanism is a natural and fundamental mechanism that tightly achieves GDP. However, the ordinary multivariate Gaussian mechanism is not optimal with respect to statistical utility. To improve the utility, we develop the rank-deficient and James-Stein Gaussian mechanisms for releasing private multivariate statistics based on the geometry of multivariate Gaussian distribution. We show that our proposals satisfy GDP and dominate the ordinary Gaussian mechanism with respect to L_2-cost. We also show that the Laplace mechanism, a prime mechanism in ε-DP framework, is sub-optimal than Gaussian-type mechanisms under the framework of GDP. For a fair comparison, we calibrate the Laplace mechanism to the global sensitivity of the statistic with the exact approach to the trade-off function. We also develop the optimal parameter for the Laplace mechanism when applied to contingency tables. Indeed, we show that the Gaussian-type mechanisms dominate the Laplace mechanism in contingency table analysis. In addition, we apply our findings to propose differentially private χ^2-tests on contingency tables. Numerical results demonstrate that differentially private parametric bootstrap tests control the type I error rates and show higher power than other natural competitors.Jonghyeok Lee, Minwoo Kim, Seung Woo Kwak, Sungkyu Jungwork_xvhr4nbrbvfjpm45ouqe6kddpmMon, 28 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT