IA Scholar Query: A Calculus of Program Modifications.
https://scholar.archive.org/
Internet Archive Scholar query results feedeninfo@archive.orgSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTfatcat-scholarhttps://scholar.archive.org/help1440Chapter 6. Systems Philosophically Considered
https://scholar.archive.org/work/l6j7gpewhnbytp6ypzutg6k6yi
work_l6j7gpewhnbytp6ypzutg6k6yiSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTRevisiting Iso-Recursive Subtyping
https://scholar.archive.org/work/vfmzcu77zvdkbhgmeocsrubsde
The Amber rules are well-known and widely used for subtyping iso-recursive types. They were first briefly and informally introduced in 1985 by Cardelli in a manuscript describing the Amber language. Despite their use over many years, important aspects of the metatheory of the iso-recursive style Amber rules have not been studied in depth or turn out to be quite challenging to formalize. This article aims to revisit the problem of subtyping iso-recursive types. We start by introducing a novel declarative specification for Amber-style iso-recursive subtyping. Informally, the specification states that two recursive types are subtypes if all their finite unfoldings are subtypes . The Amber rules are shown to have equivalent expressive power to this declarative specification. We then show two variants of sound , complete and decidable algorithmic formulations of subtyping with respect to the declarative specification, which employ the idea of double unfoldings . Compared to the Amber rules, the double unfolding rules have the advantage of: (1) being modular; (2) not requiring reflexivity to be built in; (3) leading to an easy proof of transitivity of subtyping; and (4) being easily applicable to subtyping relations that are not antisymmetric (such as subtyping relations with record types). This work sheds new insights on the theory of subtyping iso-recursive types, and the new rules based on double unfoldings have important advantages over the original Amber rules involving recursive types. All results are mechanically formalized in the Coq theorem prover.Yaoda Zhou, Jinxu Zhao, Bruno C. D. S. Oliveirawork_vfmzcu77zvdkbhgmeocsrubsdeSat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMTAccess Journal Volume 02, Number 03
https://scholar.archive.org/work/keh5bvanyrh5ths3uzlqnh4xaa
ACCESS (Adoption of Contemporary research Concentrating Education Science & Social Studies) Journal is an initiative of GEIST International Foundation where it invites researchers, enthusiasts, experts, teachers, educators, faculty members, policy makers, journalists and regulators and students of the education sector from the different parts of the world share their research experiences and results on education, educational development, teaching methodologies, innovation, trends and future. GEIST International Foundation welcomes honorable contributors from the global education sector to submit their research and study contents so that this journal can become a platform for knowledge and experience give-and-take.GEIST International Foundationwork_keh5bvanyrh5ths3uzlqnh4xaaTue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMTPursuing Diabetic Nephropathy through Aqueous Humor Proteomics Analysis
https://scholar.archive.org/work/he7liee5wzhfrb2s63ydw2rl2e
In order to determine the possible aqueous humor (AH) proteins involved in diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression, we performed gel electrophoresis-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry protein profiling of AH samples from 5 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) combined DN and 5 patients with PDR. Function enrichment analyses were carried out after the identification of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Protein-protein interaction networks were then built and the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database and CytoNCA plugin in Cytoscape were utilized for module analysis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze disease and biological function, Tox function enrichment and upstream regulatory molecules/networks. Fifty-four DEPs were finally confirmed, whose enriched functions and pathways covered cell adhesion, extracellular exosome, complement activation, complement and coagulation cascades, etc. Nine hub genes were identified, including NCAM1, PLG, APOH, C3, PSAP, RBP4, CDH2, NUCB1, and GNS. IPA showed that C3 and PLG are involved in renal and urological system abnormalities. Conclusively, DEPs and hub proteins confirmed in this exploratory AH proteomic analysis may help us gain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in DN progression, providing novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection for diagnosis of DN.Huan Chen, Tan Wang, Erqian Wang, Ningning Li, Hanyi Min, Shao Liangwork_he7liee5wzhfrb2s63ydw2rl2eThu, 29 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTPoint defects in 2-D liquid crystals with singular potential: profiles and stability
https://scholar.archive.org/work/pfnfzlkptzbnlp3ms3uheiltbq
We study radial symmetric point defects with degree k/2 in 2D disk or ℝ^2 in Q-tensor framework with singular bulk energy, which is defined by Bingham closure. First, we obtain the existence of solutions for the profiles of radial symmetric point defects with degree k/2 in 2D disk or ℝ^2. Then we prove that the solution is stable for |k|=1 and unstable for |k|>1. Some identities are derived and used throughout the proof of existence and stability/instability.Zhiyuan Geng, Wei Wangwork_pfnfzlkptzbnlp3ms3uheiltbqWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTMultiple Initial Point Approach to Solving Power Flows for Monte Carlo Studies
https://scholar.archive.org/work/d7fumvbqbjgwxd65rpn4sx4qce
Power flow solvers typically start from an initial point of power injection. This paper constructs a system of multiple initial points (SMIP) to enable selection of an appropriate initial point, with the objective to achieve a balanced improvement in the solution speed and accuracy, for problems with a large number of power flows. The intent is to recover time cost of forming the SMIP through the improvements to each power flow. The SMIP is tested on a time series based Monte Carlo study of Electric Vehicle (EV) hosting capacity in a low voltage distribution network, which has 5.4 million power flows. SMIP is applied to two power flow solvers: a Taylor series approximation and a Z-bus method. The accuracy of the quadratic Taylor series approximation was improved by a factor of 30 with a 27% increase in the solve time when compared against a single no-load initial point. A Z-bus solver with SMIP, limited to two iterations, gave the best performance for the EV hosting capacity case study.Josh Schipper, Sharee McNab, Yuyin Kueh, Radnya Mukhedkarwork_d7fumvbqbjgwxd65rpn4sx4qceWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTCost Automata, Safe Schemes, and Downward Closures
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ir2jfld7jrhhno7igngt72hpyy
Higher-order recursion schemes are an expressive formalism used to define languages of finite and infinite ranked trees. They extend regular and context-free grammars, and are equivalent in expressive power to the simply typed λ Y-calculus and collapsible pushdown automata. In this work we prove, under a syntactical constraint called safety, decidability of the model-checking problem for recursion schemes against properties defined by alternating B-automata, an extension of alternating parity automata over infinite trees with a boundedness acceptance condition. We then exploit this result to show how to compute downward closures of languages of finite trees recognized by safe recursion schemes.David Barozzini, Lorenzo Clemente, Thomas Colcombet, Paweł Paryswork_ir2jfld7jrhhno7igngt72hpyyWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTStructured (min,+)-Convolution And Its Applications For The Shortest Vector, Closest Vector, and Separable Nonlinear Knapsack Problems
https://scholar.archive.org/work/ocgputxwrvebppum5fhd54jbny
In this work we consider the problem of computing the (min, +)-convolution of two sequences a and b of lengths n and m, respectively, where n ≥ m. We assume that a is arbitrary, but b_i = f(i), where f(x) [0,m) →ℝ is a function with one of the following properties: 1. the linear case, when f(x) =β + α· x; 2. the monotone case, when f(i+1) ≥ f(i), for any i; 3. the convex case, when f(i+1) - f(i) ≥ f(i) - f(i-1), for any i; 4. the concave case, when f(i+1) - f(i) ≤ f(i) - f(i-1), for any i; 5. the piece-wise linear case, when f(x) consist of p linear pieces; 6. the polynomial case, when f ∈ℤ^d[x], for some fixed d. To the best of our knowledge, the cases 4-6 were not considered in literature before. We develop true sub-quadratic algorithms for them. We apply our results to the knapsack problem with a separable nonlinear objective function, shortest lattice vector, and closest lattice vector problems.D. V. Gribanov, I. A. Shumilov, D. S. Malyshevwork_ocgputxwrvebppum5fhd54jbnyWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTMechanizing the comparison of the semantic expressiveness of recursive types
https://scholar.archive.org/work/qnwunkjrivaf7b6nqitdaipice
Recursive types extend the simply-typed lambda calculus (STLC) with the additional expressive power to enable diverging computation and to encode recursive data-types (e.g., lists). Two formulations of recursive types exist: iso-recursive and equi-recursive. The relative advantages of iso- and equi-recursion are well-studied when it comes to their impact on type-inference. However, the relative semantic expressiveness of the two formulations remains unclear so far. This paper studies the semantic expressiveness of STLC with iso- and equi-recursive types, proving that these formulations are equally expressive. In fact, we prove that they are both as expressive as STLC with only term-level recursion. We phrase these equi-expressiveness results in terms of full abstraction of three canonical compilers between these three languages (STLC with iso-, with equi-recursive types and with term-level recursion). Our choice of languages allows us to study expressiveness when interacting over both a simply-typed and a recursively-typed interface. The three proofs all rely on a typed version of a proof technique called approximate backtranslation. Together, our results show that there is no difference in semantic expressiveness between STLCs with iso- and equi-recursive types. In this paper, we focus on a simply-typed setting but we believe our results scale to more powerful type systems like System F.Dominique Devriese, Eric Mark Martin, Marco Patrignaniwork_qnwunkjrivaf7b6nqitdaipiceWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTSpacetime foam: a review
https://scholar.archive.org/work/r4k46552hzdi3bjo3iwikvfoxa
More than 65 years ago, John Wheeler suggested that quantum uncertainties of the metric would be of order one at the Planck scale, leading to large fluctuations in spacetime geometry and topology, which he termed "spacetime foam." In this review I discuss various attempts to implement this idea and to test it, both theoretically and, to a lesser extent, observationally.S. Carlipwork_r4k46552hzdi3bjo3iwikvfoxaWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTOn the Existence and Applicability of Extremal Principles in the Theory of Irreversible Processes: A Critical Review
https://scholar.archive.org/work/hdmh4rxgfrdwnebbsxdl57fxia
A brief review of the development of ideas on extremal principles in the theory of heat and mass transfer processes (including those in reacting media) is given. The extremal principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics are critically examined. Examples are shown in which the mechanical use of entropy production-based principles turns out to be inefficient and even contradictory. The main problem of extremal principles in the theory of irreversible processes is the impossibility of their generalization, often even within the framework of a class of problems. Alternative extremal formulations are considered: variational principles for heat and mass transfer equations and other dissipative systems. Several extremal principles are singled out, which make it possible to simplify the numerical solution of the initial equations. Criteria are proposed that allow one to classify extremal principles according to their areas of applicability. Possible directions for further research in the search for extremal principles in the theory of irreversible processes are given.Igor Donskoywork_hdmh4rxgfrdwnebbsxdl57fxiaWed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTAn entropic approach for Hamiltonian Monte Carlo: the idealized case
https://scholar.archive.org/work/olgjmg4azreavnzglkoffbkbui
Quantitative long-time entropic convergence and short-time regularization are established for an idealized Hamiltonian Monte Carlo chain which alternatively follows an Hamiltonian dynamics for a fixed time and then partially or totally refresh its velocity with an auto-regressive Gaussian step. These results, in discrete time, are the analogous of similar results for the continuous-time kinetic Langevin diffusion, and the latter can be obtained from our bounds in a suitable limit regime. The dependency in the log-Sobolev constant of the target measure is sharp and is illustrated on a mean-field case and on a low-temperature regime, with an application to the simulated annealing algorithm.Pierre Monmarchéwork_olgjmg4azreavnzglkoffbkbuiTue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTPrinciples Of Heliophysics: a textbook on the universal processes behind planetary habitability
https://scholar.archive.org/work/v2zqk34khrabtaqqb3zmwqkhpa
Heliophysics is the system science of the physical connections between the Sun and the solar system. As the physics of the local cosmos, it embraces space weather and planetary habitability. The wider view of comparative heliophysics forms a template for conditions in exoplanetary systems and provides a view over time of the aging Sun and its magnetic activity, of the heliosphere in different settings of the interstellar medium and subject to stellar impacts, of the space physics over evolving planetary dynamos, and of the long-term influence on planetary atmospheres by stellar radiation and wind. Based on a series of NASA-funded summer schools for early-career researchers, this textbook is intended for students in physical sciences in later years of their university training and for beginning graduate students in fields of solar, stellar, (exo-)planetary, and planetary-system sciences. The book emphasizes universal processes from a perspective that draws attention to what provides Earth (and similar (exo-)planets) with a relatively stable setting in which life as we know it could thrive. The text includes 200 "Activities" in the form of exercises, explorations, literature readings, "what if" challenges, and group discussion topics; many of the Activities provide additional information complementing the main text. Solutions and discussions are included in an Appendix for a selection of the exercises.Karel Schrijver, Fran Bagenal, Tim Bastian, Juerg Beer, Mario Bisi, Tom Bogdan, Steve Bougher, David Boteler, Dave Brain, Guy Brasseur, Don Brownlee, Paul Charbonneau, Ofer Cohen, Uli Christensen, Tom Crowley, Debrah Fischer, Terry Forbes, Tim Fuller-Rowell, Marina Galand, Joe Giacalone, George Gloeckler, Jack Gosling, Janet Green, Nick Gross, Steve Guetersloh, Viggo Hansteen, Lee Hartmann, Mihaly Horanyi, Hugh Hudson, Norbert Jakowski, Randy Jokipii, Margaret Kivelson, Dietmar Krauss-Varban, Norbert Krupp, Judith Lean, Jeff Linsky, Dana Longcope, Daniel Marsh, Mark Miesch, Mark Moldwin, Luke Moore, Sten Odenwald, Merav Opher, Rachel Osten, Matthias Rempel, Hauke Schmidt, George Siscoe, Dave Siskind, Chuck Smith, Stan Solomon, Tom Stallard, Sabine Stanley, Jan Sojka, Kent Tobiska, Frank Toffoletto, Alan Tribble, Vytenis Vasyliunas, Richard Walterscheid, Ji Wang, Brian Wood, Tom Woods, Neal Zappwork_v2zqk34khrabtaqqb3zmwqkhpaTue, 27 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTVacua by Derivative Corrections in 𝒩=1 Supergravity with Matter Multiplets
https://scholar.archive.org/work/qxcjy5s4c5cetdtwq4ksuwdedu
We study the vacuum structures of four-dimensional 𝒩 = 1 old minimal supergravity with higher derivative corrections. We find that 𝒩 = 1 supergravity with Riemann curvature square corrections and higher derivative matter chiral multiplets induces a non-trivial de Sitter vacuum, even in the absence of superpotentials. This vacuum generically breaks supersymmetry. We show that the auxiliary fields in the gravity and the chiral multiples play important roles to generate a potential in supersymmetric higher derivative theories.Atsuki Inoue, Shin Sasakiwork_qxcjy5s4c5cetdtwq4ksuwdeduMon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTInflationary phenomenology of quadratic gravity in the Palatini formulation
https://scholar.archive.org/work/quaon6ge45evvaaglpa5fvs3zm
Angelos Lykkas, University Of Ioanninawork_quaon6ge45evvaaglpa5fvs3zmMon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTDynamics of COVID-19 Using SEIQR Epidemic Model
https://scholar.archive.org/work/zzl3w37zqfc7flvic3s4tzahfa
The major goal of this study is to create an optimal technique for managing COVID-19 spread by transforming the SEIQR model into a dynamic (multistage) programming problem with continuous and discrete time-varying transmission rates as optimizing variables. We have developed an optimal control problem for a discrete-time, deterministic susceptible class (S), exposed class (E), infected class (I), quarantined class (Q), and recovered class (R) epidemic with a finite time horizon. The problem involves finding the minimum objective function of a controlled process subject to the constraints of limited resources. For our model, we present a new technique based on dynamic programming problem solutions that can be used to minimize infection rate and maximize recovery rate. We developed suitable conditions for obtaining monotonic solutions and proposed a dynamic programming model to obtain optimal transmission rate sequences. We explored the positivity and unique solvability nature of these implicit and explicit time-discrete models. According to our findings, isolating the affected humans can limit the danger of COVID-19 spreading in the future.N. Avinash, G. Britto Antony Xavier, Ammar Alsinai, Hanan Ahmed, V. Rexma Sherine, P. Chellamani, Ali Sajidwork_zzl3w37zqfc7flvic3s4tzahfaMon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTOn Completeness of Cost Metrics and Meta-Search Algorithms in -Calculus
https://scholar.archive.org/work/h4lp7jrk2fgldkq2bo5dj47qd4
In the paper we define three new complexity classes for Turing Machine undecidable problems inspired by the famous Cook/Levin's NP-complete complexity class for intractable problems. These are U-complete (Universal complete), D-complete (Diagonalization complete) and H-complete (Hypercomputation complete) classes. In the paper, in the spirit of Cook/Levin/Karp, we started the population process of these new classes assigning several undecidable problems to them. We justify that some super-Turing models of computation, i.e., models going beyond Turing machines, are tremendously expressive and they allow to accept arbitrary languages over a given alphabet including those undecidable ones. We prove also that one of such super-Turing models of computation - the $-Calculus, designed as a tool for automatic problem solving and automatic programming, has also such tremendous expressiveness. We investigate also completeness of cost metrics and meta-search algorithms in $-calculus.Eugene Eberbachwork_h4lp7jrk2fgldkq2bo5dj47qd4Mon, 26 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTBasic Quantum Algorithms
https://scholar.archive.org/work/f7qlyr3hwrgq3nv6jh6pu36mni
Quantum computing is evolving so quickly that forces us to revisit, rewrite, and update the basis of the theory. Basic Quantum Algorithms revisits the first quantum algorithms. It started in 1985 with Deutsch trying to evaluate a function at two domain points simultaneously. Then, Deutsch and Jozsa created in 1992 a quantum algorithm that determines whether a Boolean function is constant or balanced. In the next year, Bernstein and Vazirani realized that the same algorithm can be used to find a specific Boolean function in the set of linear Boolean functions. In 1994, Simon presented a new quantum algorithm that determines whether a function is one-to-one or two-to-one exponentially faster than any classical algorithm for the same problem. In the same year, Shor created two new quantum algorithms for factoring integers and calculating discrete logarithms, threatening the cryptography methods widely used nowadays. In 1995, Kitaev described an alternative version for Shor's algorithms that proved useful in many other applications. In the following year, Grover created a quantum search algorithm quadratically faster than its classical counterpart. In this work, all those remarkable algorithms are described in detail with a focus on the circuit model.Renato Portugalwork_f7qlyr3hwrgq3nv6jh6pu36mniSat, 24 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTModelling solid/fluid interactions in hydrodynamic flows: a hybrid multiscale approach
https://scholar.archive.org/work/uuzf6ksrfvberijkhxuk55m2ne
With the advent of high performance computing (HPC), we can simulate nature at time and length scales that we could only dream of a few decades ago. Through the development of theory and numerical methods in the last fifty years, we have at our disposal a plethora of mathematical and computational tools to make powerful predictions about the world which surrounds us. From quantum methods like Density Functional Theory (DFT); going through atomistic methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC), right up to more traditional macroscopic techniques based on Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) discretization like the Finite Element Method (FEM) or Finite Volume Method (FVM), which are respectively, the foundation of computational Structural Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Many modern scientific computing challenges in physics stem from combining appropriately two or more of these methods, in order to tackle problems that could not be solved otherwise using just one of them alone. This is known as multi-scale modeling, which aims to achieve a trade-off between computational cost and accuracy by combining two or more physical models at different scales. In this work, a multi-scale domain decomposition technique based on coupling MD and CFD methods, has been developed to make affordable the study of slip and friction, with atomistic detail, at length scales otherwise impossible by fully atomistic methods alone. A software framework has been developed to facilitate the execution of this particular kind of simulations on HPC clusters. This have been possible by employing the in-house developed CPL_LIBRARY software library, which provides key functionality to implement coupling through domain decomposition.Eduardo Ramos Fernandez, Daniele Dini, David Heyes, BP-ICAM, Engineering And Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)work_uuzf6ksrfvberijkhxuk55m2neFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMTDr. Neurosymbolic, or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Accept Statistics
https://scholar.archive.org/work/o4q5lwow3nc5nmpl5rhwtm754m
The symbolic AI community is increasingly trying to embrace machine learning in neuro-symbolic architectures, yet is still struggling due to cultural barriers. To break the barrier, this rather opinionated personal memo attempts to explain and rectify the conventions in Statistics, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning from the viewpoint of outsiders. It provides a step-by-step protocol for designing a machine learning system that satisfies a minimum theoretical guarantee necessary for being taken seriously by the symbolic AI community, i.e., it discusses "in what condition we can stop worrying and accept statistical machine learning." Some highlights: Most textbooks are written for those who plan to specialize in Stat/ML/DL and are supposed to accept jargons. This memo is for experienced symbolic researchers that hear a lot of buzz but are still uncertain and skeptical. Information on Stat/ML/DL is currently too scattered or too noisy to invest in. This memo prioritizes compactness and pays special attention to concepts that resonate well with symbolic paradigms. I hope this memo offers time savings. It prioritizes general mathematical modeling and does not discuss any specific function approximator, such as neural networks (NNs), SVMs, decision trees, etc. It is open to corrections. Consider this memo as something similar to a blog post taking the form of a paper on Arxiv.Masataro Asaiwork_o4q5lwow3nc5nmpl5rhwtm754mFri, 23 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT